William Colenso 

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William Colenso (7 November 1811 – 10 February 1899) was a CornishChristian missionary to New Zealand, and also a printer, botanist, explorer and politician. He attended the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi and later wrote an account of the events at Waitangi.

Early Life
Born in Penzance, Cornwall, he was the cousin of John William Colenso, bishop of Natal. He trained as a printer’s apprentice then traveled to New Zealand in 1834 to work for the Church Missionary Society as a printer/missionary. He was responsible for the printing of the Māori language translation of the New Testament. In July 1827 Colenso printed the first Māori Bible comprising three chapters of Genesis, the 20th chapter of Exodus, the first chapter of the Gospel of St John, 30 verses of the fifth chapter of the Gospel of St Matthew, the Lord’s Prayer and some hymns. He was ordained a Deacon on 22 September 1844 following his theological studies at St John’s College, which was then located at Te Waimate mission.
He was an avid botanist; detailing and transmitting to Kew Gardens in England previously unrecorded New Zealand flora. In 1866 he was the first New Zealander to be elected as a Fellow of the Royal Society. He wrote several books, and contributed over a hundred papers to scientific journals.
William and Elizabeth Colenso worked at the Waitangi (Ahuriri, Napier) Mission from 1844, In the 1840s, from his mission station in Hawke’s Bay, he made several long exploratory journeys through the central North Island in the company of Maori guides with the aim of reaching the inland Maori settlements of Patea, in the Taihape region, and converting them to Christianity. His travels took him through trackless forest, over the high Ruahine Rangeand across the Rangipo Desert and past the mountains of Ruapehu and Tongariro to the shores of Lake Taupo. In doing so he contributed greatly to the European exploration of the central North Island. One of his journeys, between December 1841 and February 1842, was across the North Island and up to the Kaipara Harbour.
From 1845 Colenso undertook lengthy journeys every spring and autumn. In 1847 he travelled to Taupo then south to pass by the Tongariro and Ruapehu mountains. He regularly visited the Wairapara and Hutt districts, where he was frequently at odds with the European lessees of sheep and cattle stations such as Kelly, McMaster, Grindell and Gillies. In 1845 about 12 sheep and cattle farmers had leased large areas of land from local Maori by mutual agreement. Maori owners regularly raised the annual lease fee to the annoyance of the farmers. The farmers regularly pressed Maori to sell land. Many younger chiefs were keen sellers but were thwarted by conservative older chiefs. The farmers also paid Maori to assist in building roads to help economic development. Colenso regularly counselled Maori against selling any land or helping build roads which he claimed would be disastrous for them. Colenso was especially vociferous about the farmers living with Maori women as their wives, without a Christian marriage. Colenso also had strong views about drinking and horse racing which were a regular part of colonial life that Maori as well as settlers enjoyed. This put him in opposition to a wide range of New Zealanders. In 1847 judge Chapman, doctor Featherston, bank manager McDonald and merchant Waitt visited the Hutt valley. There was criticism of what was called “the malicious interference of Colenso”.
His standing in New Zealand colonial society and the Church Missionary Society, along with his fervent hope of ordination, was lost when it was discovered that he was the father of a son (Wiremu) by Ripeka, the Māori maid of his wife, Elizabeth Fairburn Colenso in May 1850. In November 1851 he was suspended as a deacon and dismissed from the mission in 1852. In 1853 he was convicted of a technical assault over an argument about Ripeka and their son.
Following a long wilderness period during which he continued his botany work, he took an active role as a local politician in Napier. He represented Napier as the Member of Parliament for the Napier electorate from the 1861 by-election to 1866, when he retired.
In 1871 Colenso was the speaker at the Hawkes Bay Provincial Council when Ngati Kahungunu had been persuaded by farmers, the Russell Brothers, that they could get their land back in what came to be known as the Repudiation Movement. Their chief Henare Matua had already pronounced all land dealing with both the crown and private sales illegal. The brothers persuaded Maori that legal action against large land owners such as Donald McLean would succeed. Colenso advised Maori not to take a legal path that would leave them deep in debt. Lawyer and later Government Native Minister John Sheehan who spoke fluent Maori, acted on behalf of the Repudiation Movement. Matua attempted to stand as an MP but lost and the movement, deep in debt, petered out.
He died in Napier in 1899, leaving two sons and a daughter. His son from Ripeka, Wiremu/William, left New Zealand for Cornwall, married a cousin and lived in Penzance until his death. His son from Elizabeth Fairburn, Ridley Latimer, attended Cambridge University, and finally settled in Scotland. His daughter Frances Mary married William Henry Simcox and settled in Otaki, New Zealand. Neither of his sons had surviving children – Frances had nine.

T.L.” Osborn

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Tommy Lee “T.L.” Osborn (December 23, 1923 – February 14, 2013) was an American Pentecostal evangelist, singer, author and teacher, whose established ministry was based in Tulsa, Oklahoma In his six decades of ministry, he hosted the Good News Today program, who was also best known for his mass-miracle ministry to millions. He was also the first missionary evangelist to attend open fields or parks, in non-Christian nations, to proclaim Christ and to pray for miracles as proof that “He is Alive.”
Biography
Tommy Lee Osborn was born on December 23, 1923, on the small family potato farm, in Grady County, Oklahoma. He was the seventh and youngest son of thirteen children, born to Charles Richard Osborn (1883–1966) and his wife Mary (née Brown) (1885–1951). His father, also a seventh son, was a nonpracticing traditional Baptist, “That’s supposed to mean something,” Osborn once commented, adding “Turns out, it did mean something.” His parents were musicians, as were several of his brothers and sisters and Tommy Lee started making music at a very young age. Growing up in the latter half of the 1920s, he saw his large family struggling through the depression years. In 1930, when Osborn was 6, his father moved the family to Skedee, Oklahoma, in search of another, more profitable farm. At a church in Sand Springs, Oklahoma, he met future televangelist Oral Roberts, who would become his lifelong friend for over 70 years, until Roberts’s death in 2009. Osborn frequently went with Roberts to help with evangelical meetings. Roberts did most of the preaching, Osborn did everything else, including playing the accordion and the piano for the musical part of the meetings. Osborn had experienced a Christian conversion in 1937, at the age of 13, when his older brother took him to a Pentecostal church in Mannford. Gradually, each of his six brothers moved out of the family home until TL was the only boy still living with his parents and helping his 60-year-old father on the potato farm. He admitted that he was reluctant, even scared, to ask his father’s permission to move out and begin traveling. Finally, while sorting potatoes in the cellar, he plucked up courage to make the request and was greatly surprised when his father said “yes
In 1939, aged 15, Osborn was milking the cows when he began to cry. He fell on his knees, praying and asking God what was happening. The Lord, he said, called him to be an evangelist, while he laughed and cried at the same time, overwhelmed by what was happening to him. He dropped out of high school after completing eighth grade and hit the road with E.M. Dillard, a traveling evangelist. Osborn was responsible for organising evangelistic meetings and was also in charge of youth services in the evening. He traveled with Dillard through three states. The last one was California, and he met Daisy Washburn, in Los Banos, California at one of the meetings. It was 1941 and he was only 17 when he fell instantly in love
On April 5, 1942, Osborn married graduating high school student and farmer’s girl, Daisy Washburn Osborn (born September 23, 1924 in Merced, California). He was 18, and she was only 17. Shortly thereafter, they set out on a life of ministry and missionary travel, including a trip to India when Osborn was still only 21. In time, they carried the Gospel of Christ to tens of millions of people all over the world, declaring it with faith and confidence However, that early mission in India, preaching at Lucknow, was not fruitful. Their ministry lasted less than a year in India, and they returned home because of critical family sickness. In 1947, the Osborns had their only daughter, LaDonna Osborn (b. March 13 of that year; she was raised accompanying her parents on the platforms of global mass miracle evangelistic crusades.
The Osborns first gained public notice shortly after returning from India, as evangelists on the Big Tent Revival circuit in the United States and Canada. There, they preached to audiences often numbering over 10,000, in open-air meetings and under large tents in settings such as fairgrounds and stadiums. Other young contemporary evangelists, including Oral Roberts, Billy Graham, Jack Coe, R.W. Schambach and A.A. Allen, were also on the circuit. The Osborns emphasised the love and compassion of God, rather than the “fire and brimstone” commonly used by evangelists of the era, and they practiced supernatural healing in their meetings.
By the early 1950s, their emphasis began to shift more and more toward international missions. They held large crusades in Latin America, Asia, and Africa and crowds grew rapidly, at times exceeding 100,000. After Osborn’s crusades in Thailand in 1956 and Uganda in 1957, Pastor Fred Wantaate of Makerere Full Gospel Church said that “after that crusade in Mombasa, the fountain of the river of Pentecostalism spread in the heart of East AfricaAround that same time, he met another future televangelist, Marilyn Hickey, 8 years Osborn’s junior, with her new husband, Wallace. The young couple traveled around in her husband’s car, conducting tent revival meetings in various towns. Together, Osborn and Hickey prayed for the sick and she became a guest speaker at his conferences. He was lifelong friends with her family until his death just 4 months after Hickey lost her husband, Wallace.
Over the course of the next 5 decades, Osborn and his team traveled to more than 70 countries and reached millions of people. They created prolific quantities of evangelistic and training materials, some of which were translated into more than 80 languages.
Osborn’s wife of 53 years, Daisy Osborn, died in Tulsa, Oklahoma, on May 27, 1995, at age 70. Thereafter, he continued to travel and conduct crusades around the world for another 15 years. Osborn died on February 14, 2013, at the age of 89. According to his daughter, LaDonna, he had been in good health until his body began weakening just a few days before he stopped breathing. He was interred next to his wife at the Memorial Park Cemetery in Tulsa, Oklahoma (the same cemetery where Oral Roberts had been interred nearly 4 years earlier). Osborn was survived by his daughter, three of four grandchildren and 3 great-grandchildren.
LaDonna Osborn continues to operate the ministry founded by her parents, including leading international crusades in the developing world every year. His grandson Tommy Ray O’Dell, has also followed in his grandfather’s footsteps and has a ministry focused on evangelism and education in Asia, Africa, and Europe. Like his grandfather, he often draws large crowds and it has been claimed that miracles have taken place in his services.

Morris Cerullo

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Morris Cerullo
Morris Cerullo (born October 2, 1931) is an American pentecostal evangelist. He has traveled extensively around the world for his ministry. He hosts “Victory Today,” a daily television program, and has published more than 80 books.
Early life
Cerullo was born in Passaic, New Jersey to a Russo-Jewish/Italian family. His parents died in an automobile accident when he was very young. He was raised in various orphanages, the last being an Orthodox Jewish orphanage in nearby Clifton, New Jersey. He received Jesus Christ as his personal savior at age 14 with the guidance of a nurse in the Clifton, New Jersey, orphanage. Soon after, Jewish orphanage directors restricted him from practicing certain matters of his new faith, so he ran away from the orphanage. He began preaching the gospel at the age of 16, after claiming to have seen a vision from God, in which he witnessed people suffering torments in Hell. He attended and graduated from divinity school in New York state in 1953, and began ministering with the help of his then soon-to-be bride Theresa. In the early 1950s, he was ordained in the Assemblies of God.
Ministry
For many years Morris Cerullo conducted repeated “Schools of Ministry” in several countries like Mexico, Brazil, The Philippines, Korea, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Kenya, Nigeria, Indonesia, Netherlands and many others. During these “SOMs” one of the days of the conferences he would preach in an open air crusade, or a large theater/arena, and lead people in a commitment to Jesus Christ and then would pray for healings to happen in the crowd. He would have the school of ministry students test the genuineness of the reports from the people’s testimonies. After the large mass meetings he would charge the “SOM,” School Of Ministry, students to reach out to their countrymen with the same message being inspired by the results of the public rally. Cerullo often stated that not he, but Jesus Christ was the healer. He would encourage faith in, as he would say, “the written and the living word of God.”
Heritage USA
In 1990, Cerullo purchased, from the United States Federal Bankruptcy Court in Columbia, South Carolina, the assets of Jim Bakker’s bankrupt ministry, PTL. These assets included the Heritage USA Christian theme park in Fort Mill, South Carolina which he purchased in partnership with Malayan United Industries (Berhad). After a dispute with his business partners over his issuance of discount cards to the theme park, the Malaysian entity bought out Cerullo’s interest in Heritage USA.
The Inspiration Network (INSP)
As a part of his agreement to purchase Heritage USA, the bankruptcy court also approved Cerullo’s $7 million offer to purchase PTL’s cable television network, The Inspirational Network, which was renamed INSP-The Inspiration Network and transferred into a new, separate entity, The Inspiration Networks. Cerullo’s son, David, has served as the corporation’s President & CEO, and as a member of its board of directors since its formation. In 2005 he was elected to serve as its chairman. The organization, located in Charlotte, North Carolina, is currently building a new multi-million dollar broadcast headquarters facility known as “CrossRidge” in Lancaster County, South Carolina. This was opened on March 1, 2009. Cerullo and his son David were both featured in a 2009 Charlotte Observer article.
Personal
The Cerullos are the parents of three children, David (b. 1952), Susan (b. 1954) and Mark (b. 1957). Cerullo still travels as a missionary, and in the 2014 World Conference, he stated that God told him that ‘Prophets never retire!’ In 2015, at the age of 83, Cerullo toured Africa for nine days, during which time he held meetings in six African countries, preaching, holding training sessions and meeting with political leaders.
Controversy
General
Cerullo is considered by some critics to be controversial, with concerns having been raised about his financial practices. He was indicted for income tax evasion in California. Those charges were dismissed by the court.
As a Christian of Jewish origin, he has carried a few evangelistic campaigns targeted at the Jewish community, drawing some condemnation from anti-missionary organizations and claims of deceptive practices.
While no charges were brought against Cerullo’s ministry, Cerullo was found to have underrepresented his income for 1998 through 2000. However, on August 8, 2007, the US District Court, Southern District of California ordered that the indictment be dismissed as a consequence of the prosecutor’s inaccurate explanation of the Duberstein test to the jury. An extract from the ruling was published on Cerullo’s website.
United Kingdom
Cerullo’s activities in the United Kingdom have attracted considerable critical attention, particularly during the early 1990s.
In 1991, British authorities suspended the license of a satellite station for broadcasting the program, Victory with Morris Cerullo. The license was reinstated after the station agreed to precede the program with the disclaimer, “Morris Cerullo World Evangelism cannot substantiate the claims made by those participants featured in this programme,” and advising all persons suffering from illness to seek medical attention.
Following Cerullo’s Mission to London in 1992, a documentary on the BBC, Newsround, reported that a lady called Audrey Reynolds stopped taking medication for epilepsy (although she was never instructed or advised to do so by the ministry after she believed herself to have been healed during Cerullo’s rally. She subsequently died following a seizure in her bath. The story was also reported in a Christian newspaper. Another report from this crusade claimed that Cerullo pronounced a four-year-old cancer sufferer to be free from the disease, yet she died from it just two months later.
Cerullo has claimed that giving money to send evangelistic booklets to Jewish people would result in family members becoming Christians. Rev Dr Chris Wright, principal of All Nations Christian College, denounced Cerullo’s methods as “spiritually perverted and pastorally disastrous”. The Chief Rabbi Jonathan Sacks was quoted as being “deeply distressed by missionary tactics specifically targeted against Jews”.
Subsequently, Cerullo was challenged on British television to produce his three best examples of claimed miraculous healing for scrutiny by a panel of doctors. Their final report was “there is no evidence that anything has occurred that is outside the realm of normal clinical experience”.
In 1996 the Evangelical Alliance considered, but decided against, ejecting Cerullo after the Advertising Standards Authority upheld four complaints against him relating to his claims of being able to offer miraculous healing to the disabled. Cerullo later resigned from the alliance. Following Cerullo’s resignation, Britain’s then-largest church, Kensington Temple, also left the Alliance in protest.
In 1999, the Christian Channel, a UK cable channel, broadcast an advertisement for one of Cerullo’s European rallies which claimed that “Satanic hordes” had “occupied the principal palaces of power.” As a result, the channel was fined £20,000 for breaching advertising codes requiring political impartiality, for denigrating other religious beliefs, for potentially frightening viewers, and for making statements prejudicial of “respect for human dignity”.
India
Cerullo was expelled from India in 1992 after disturbances erupted at one of his rallies. The Times of India reported, “A so-called miracle healer, Morris Cerullo, who prefers to call himself a man of God, was declared ‘persona non-grata’ and bundled out of the country by Calcutta police this morning after mass healing services on Park Circus Maidan yesterday evening turned into a fiasco when members of the crowd stormed the dais challenging the efficacy of his healing power

HOPE M WADDELL

cheap doxycycline, best medicare online cialis mastercard. cheap zithromax. The Church, service and travel were generation deep in the genes of Reverend Hope Masterton Waddell. Research shows that his great grandfather Charles Masterton (1679-1750) was also of the clergy. By his birth in Ulster in 1804, I am beginning to form the conclusion that Rev Waddell was most likely of Irish decent rather than Scottish. His links with Scotland would also appear to be as a result of the misconception that he founded Hope Waddell Training Institution. While his role in establishment of the Institution cannot be disputed, the credit must rest with Mary Slessor:
The Scottish missionary Mary Mitchell Slessor, who had done much work with the Efik people around Calabar, was a driving force behind the establishment of the Institute. Edinburgh was hesitant about accepting Slessor demand to establish an industrial training center, but eventually decided to set up an institute on similar lines to its two existing ones in Africa, Lovedale Institute in South Africa and Livingstonia in Nyasaland.[3] Robert Laws, a United Presbyterian minister who had been involved with both of these institutions for a long time, was sent to make a feasibility study. Laws expressed complete confidence that the success of the other two schools could be replicated in Calabar.
My belief that Rev Waddell was actually Irish is further supported by the following post:
We are researching my husbands family, who originated in Monaghan, Ireland. His Great greatgrandfather James, was the brother of Reverend Hope masterton Waddell, the first Irish Presbyterian Missionary. James emigrated to Brooklyn with his two sons James Alexander and Hope Masterton. Hope Masterton Waddell emigrated to Australia and married a Bridget Barry in Tasmania. Their son Hope Masterton Waddell was born at Southern Cross in Western Australia.
Jane Hope was the mother. The daughter Elizabeth Susan Waddell, we think, stayed in Manchester, possibly with relatives.
(Jameson). So far we have made contact with Hope line in Australia and the Waddell line in Oregon USA.
According to Lagos Presbyterian Church, the arrival of Rev Waddell was at the behest of King Eyamba who famously wrote Queen Victoria of England in 1844
“Send us man to teach us true God”.
It is not improbable that Mary Slessor had a hand in it because of her doggedness and creativity; but more so her understanding of how the political machinery worked. One can see the logic that a monarch requesting assistance from a fellow monarch was likely to smoothen the intricate path of beaurecracy. It is on record that on receipt of the letter
“Her Majesty referred it to the Presbyterian Church of Scotland, and implored her to act upon it with great dispatch. Two years later, a team of missionary workers arrived Calabar on April 10, 1846 on board the ship “Warren” in answer to the Macedonian call.”
The leader of the team was Reverend Hope Masterton Waddell. He was a Scottish Minister who had worked in Jamaica among Jamaicans whose grandparents had been taken away from the West Coast of Africa as slaves to the West Indies. These Jamaican Christians felt a great concern for their homeland and had vowed that whenever they are released from slavery they would carry the gospel back to their native land in West Africa. Thus, the missionary team that arrived Calabar on April 10, 1846 to start the Presbyterian Church in Nigeria comprised of Scottish Ministers as well as Jamaican Church workers of West African extraction.
The party settled to work immediately. The first sermon by Reverend Hope Waddell was preached in Creek Town on July 26, 1846. The first Holy Communion was served in Duke Town on August 1, 1847. A primary school named after Reverend Hope Waddell, was started almost immediately.
Maurice Archibong in his article in Thursday, February 17, 2005 issue of The Daily Sun, also confirms that Reverend Waddell was Irish and the school was only named after him years after his return home and two days before he died.
“The Reverend Waddell arrived in Calabar in 1846 with a teacher and a carpenter and set about propagating the Christian faith. He was of the Presbyterian Mission. Several years after Waddell’s retirement and return to his home in Dublin, Ireland, the Board of the Mission in Scotland requested the Synod of the United Presbyterian Church to commemorate his work in Calabar by naming the institution after him.
As earlier mentioned, Waddell neither heard of the decision to name the school after him nor did he ever set eyes on this monument to his name. He died on the April 18, 1895 two days after the decision had been taken.”

Walter Michael Miller Jr.

generic doxycycline, generic zithromax. non percription diflucon. Walter Michael Miller Jr. (January 23, 1923 – January 9, 1996) was an American science fiction writer. He is known primarily for A Canticle for Leibowitz (1959), the only novel he published in his lifetime. Prior to its publication he was a prolific writer of short stories.
Early life
Miller was born in New Smyrna Beach, Florida. Educated at the University of Tennessee and the University of Texas, he worked as an engineer. During World War II, he served in the Army Air Corps as a radioman and tail gunner, flying more than fifty bombing missions over Italy. He took part in the bombing of the Benedictine Abbey at Monte Cassino, which proved a traumatic experience for him. Joe Haldeman reported that Miller “had Post Traumatic Stress Disorder for 30 years before it had a name”, and that Miller displayed a photograph he had taken of Ron Kovic prominently in his living room. After the war, Miller converted to Catholicism. He married Anna Louise Becker in 1945 and they had four children. He lived with science-fiction writer Judith Merril in 1953.
Career
Between 1951 and 1957, Miller published over three dozen science fiction short stories, winning a Hugo Award in 1955 for the story “The Darfsteller”. He also wrote scripts for the television show Captain Video in 1953.Late in the 1950s, Miller assembled a novel from three closely related novellas he had published in The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction in 1955, 1956 and 1957. The novel, entitled A Canticle for Leibowitz, was published in 1959.
A Canticle for Leibowitz is a post-apocalyptic novel revolving around the canonisation of Saint Leibowitz and is considered a masterpiece of the genre. It won the 1961 Hugo Award for Best Novel.
After the success of A Canticle For Leibowitz, Miller never published another new novel or story in his lifetime, although several compilations of Miller’s earlier stories were issued in the 1960s and 1970s. A radio adaptation of A Canticle for Leibowitz was produced by WHA Radio and NPR in 1981 and is available on CD. A radio adaptation of the first two parts was broadcast in the UK by the BBC in 1992. Further details can be found on the BBC Genome Project.
Later years
In Miller’s later years, he became a recluse, avoiding contact with nearly everyone, including family members; he never allowed his literary agent, Don Congdon, to meet him. According to science fiction writer Terry Bisson, Miller struggled with depression, but had managed to nearly complete a 600-page manuscript for the sequel to Canticle before taking his own life with a firearm in January 1996, shortly after his wife’s death. The sequel, Saint Leibowitz and the Wild Horse Woman, was completed by Bisson and published in 1997

THOMAS JEFFERSON

epogen. depakote without prescription, clomid without prescription. Thomas Jefferson (April 13 [O.S. April 2] 1743 – July 4, 1826) was an American Founding Father who was the principal author of the Declaration of Independence and later served as the third President of the United States from 1801 to 1809. Previously, he was electedthe second Vice President of the United States, serving under John Adams from 1797 to 1801. A proponent of democracy, republicanism, and individual rights motivating American colonists to break from Great Britain and form a new nation, he produced formative documents and decisions at both the state and national level.
Jefferson was primarily of English ancestry, born and educated incolonial Virginia. He graduated from the College of William & Maryand briefly practiced law, at times defending slaves seeking their freedom. During the American Revolution, he represented Virginia in the Continental Congress that adopted the Declaration, drafted the law for religious freedom as a Virginia legislator, and served as a wartime governor (1779–1781). He became the United States Minister to France in May 1785, and subsequently the nation’s firstSecretary of State in 1790–1793 under President George Washington. Jefferson and James Madison organized the Democratic-Republican Party to oppose the Federalist Party during the formation of the First Party System. With Madison, he anonymously wrote the controversial Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions in 1798–1799, which sought to embolden states’ rights in opposition to the national government by nullifying the Alien and Sedition Acts.
As President, Jefferson pursued the nation’s shipping and trade interests against Barbary pirates and aggressive British trade policies. He also organized the Louisiana Purchase, almost doubling the country’s territory. As a result of peace negotiations with France, his administration reduced military forces. He was reelected in 1804. Jefferson’s second term was beset with difficulties at home, including the trial of former Vice President Aaron Burr. American foreign trade was diminished when Jefferson implemented the Embargo Act of 1807, responding to British threats to U.S. shipping. In 1803, Jefferson began a controversial process of Indian tribe removal to the newly organized Louisiana Territory, and he signed the Act Prohibiting Importation of Slaves in 1807.
Jefferson mastered many disciplines, which ranged from surveying and mathematics to horticulture and mechanics. He was a proven architect in the classical tradition. Jefferson’s keen interest in religion and philosophy earned him the presidency of the American Philosophical Society. He shunned organized religion, but was influenced by both Christianity and deism. He was well versed in linguistics and spoke several languages. He founded the University of Virginia after retiring from public office. He was a prolific letter writer and corresponded with many prominent and important people throughout his adult life. His only full-length book is Notes on the State of Virginia (1785), considered the most important American book published before 1800.
Jefferson owned several plantations which were worked by hundreds of slaves. Most historians now believe that, after the death of his wife in 1782, he had a relationship with his slave Sally Hemings and fathered at least one of her children. Historians have lauded Jefferson’s public life, noting his primary authorship of the Declaration of Independence during the Revolutionary War, his advocacy of religious freedom and tolerance in Virginia, and the Louisiana Purchase while he was president. Various modern scholars are more critical of Jefferson’s private life, pointing out the discrepancy between his ownership of slaves and his liberal political principles, for example. Presidential scholars, however, consistently rank Jefferson among the greatest presidents.
Early life and career
Thomas Jefferson was born on April 13, 1743 (April 2, 1743 Old Style, Julian calendar), at the family home in Shadwell in the Colony of Virginia, the third of ten children. He was of English and possibly Welsh descent and was born a British subject. His father Peter Jefferson was a planter and surveyor who died when Jefferson was fourteen; his mother was Jane Randolph. Peter Jefferson moved his family to Tuckahoe Plantation in 1745 upon the death of a friend who had named him guardian of his children. The Jeffersons returned to Shadwell in 1752, where Peter died in 1757; his estate was divided between his sons Thomas and Randolph. Thomas inherited approximately 5,000 acres (2,000 ha; 7.8 sq mi) of land, including Monticello. He assumed full authority over his property at age 21.
Education
Jefferson began his childhood education beside the Randolph children with tutors at Tuckahoe. In 1752, he began attending a local school run by a Scottish Presbyterian minister. At age nine, he started studying the natural world as well as three languages: Latin, Greek, and French. By this time he also learned to ride horses. He was taught from 1758 to 1760 by Reverend James Maury near Gordonsville, Virginia, where he studied history, science, and the classics while boarding with Maury’s family. Jefferson entered the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia, at age 16 and studied mathematics, metaphysics, and philosophy under Professor William Small. Small introduced him to the British Empiricistsincluding John Locke, Francis Bacon, and Isaac Newton. Jefferson improved his French and Greek and his skill at the violin. He graduated two years after starting in 1762. He read the law under Professor George Wythe’s tutelage to obtain his law license, while working as a law clerk in Wythe’s office. He also read a wide variety of English classics and political works.
Jefferson treasured his books. In 1770, his Shadwell home was destroyed by fire, including a library of 200 volumes inherited from his father. Nevertheless, he had replenished his library with 1,250 titles by 1773, and his collection grew to almost 6,500 volumes in 1814. The British burned the Library of Congress that year, and he sold more than 6,000 books to the Library for $23,950. He had intended to pay off some of his large debt, but he resumed collecting for his personal library, writing to John Adams, “I cannot live without books”.
Lawyer and House of Burgesses
Jefferson was admitted to the Virginia bar in 1767 and then lived with his mother at Shadwell. In addition to practicing law, Jefferson represented Albemarle County as a delegate in the Virginia House of Burgesses from 1769 until 1775. He pursued reforms to slavery. He introduced legislation in 1769 allowing masters to take control over the emancipation of slaves, taking discretion away from the royal Governor and General Court. He persuaded his cousin Richard Bland to spearhead the legislation’s passage, but reaction was strongly negative.
Jefferson took seven cases for freedom-seeking slaves and waived his fee for one client, who claimed that he should be freed before the statutory age of thirty-one required for emancipation in cases with inter-racial grandparents. He invoked Natural Law to argue, “everyone comes into the world with a right to his own person and using it at his own will … This is what is called personal liberty, and is given him by the author of nature, because it is necessary for his own sustenance.” The judge cut him off and ruled against his client. As a consolation, Jefferson gave his client some money, conceivably used to aid his escape shortly thereafter. He later incorporated this sentiment into the Declaration of Independence. He also took on 68 cases for the General Court of Virginia in 1767, in addition to three notable cases: Howell v. Netherland (1770),Bolling v. Bolling (1771), and Blair v. Blair (1772).
The British Parliament passed the Intolerable Acts in 1774, and Jefferson wrote a resolution calling for a “Day of Fasting and Prayer” in protest, as well as a boycott of all British goods. His resolution was later expanded into A Summary View of the Rights of British America, in which he argued that people have the right to govern themselves. Monticello, marriage and family
In 1768, Jefferson began constructing his primary residence Monticello (Italian for “Little Mountain”) on a hilltop overlooking his 5,000-acre plantation. Construction was done mostly by local masons and carpenters, assisted by Jefferson’s slaves.
He moved into the South Pavilion in 1770. Turning Monticello into a neoclassical masterpiece in the Palladian style was his perennial project.
On January 1, 1772, Jefferson married his third cousin Martha Wayles Skelton, the 23-year-old widow of Bathurst Skelton, and she moved into the South Pavilion. She was a frequent hostess for Jefferson and managed the large household. Biographer Dumas Malone described the marriage as the happiest period of Jefferson’s life. Martha read widely, did fine needlework, and was a skilled pianist; Jefferson often accompanied her on the violin or cello. During their ten years of marriage, Martha bore six children: Martha “Patsy” (1772–1836); Jane (1774–1775); a son who lived for only a few weeks in 1777; Mary Wayles “Polly” (1778–1804); Lucy Elizabeth (1780–1781); and another Lucy Elizabeth (1782–1785). Only Martha and Mary survived more than a few years.
Martha’s father John Wayles died in 1773, and the couple inherited 135 slaves, 11,000 acres (4,500 ha; 17 sq mi), and the estate’s debts. The debts took Jefferson years to satisfy, contributing to his financial problems.
Martha later suffered from ill health, including diabetes, and frequent childbirth further weakened her. Her mother had died young, and Martha lived with two stepmothers as a girl. A few months after the birth of her last child, she died on September 6, 1782, at the age of 33 with Jefferson at her bedside. Shortly before her death, Martha made Jefferson promise never to marry again, telling him that she could not bear to have another mother raise her children. Jefferson was grief-stricken by her death, relentlessly pacing back and forth, nearly to the point of exhaustion. He emerged after three weeks, taking long rambling rides on secluded roads with his daughter Martha, by her description “a solitary witness to many a violent burst of grief”.
After working as Secretary of State (1790–93), he returned to Monticello and initiated a remodeling based on the architectural concepts which he had acquired in Europe. The work continued throughout most of his presidency, being finished in 1809.
Declaration of Independence
Jefferson was the primary author of the Declaration of Independence. At age 33, he was one of the youngest delegates to the Second Continental Congress beginning in 1775 at the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War, where a formal declaration of independence from Britain was overwhelmingly favored. Jefferson chose his words for the Declaration in June 1775, shortly after the war had begun, where the idea of Independence from Britain had long since become popular among the colonies. He was inspired by the Enlightenment ideals of the sanctity of the individual, as well as by the writings of Locke and Montesquieu.
He sought out John Adams, an emerging leader of the Congress. They became close friends and Adams supported Jefferson’s appointment to the Committee of Five formed to draft a declaration of independence in furtherance of the Lee Resolution passed by the Congress, which declared the United Colonies independent. The committee initially thought that Adams should write the document, but Adams persuaded the committee to choose Jefferson.
Jefferson consulted with other committee members over the next seventeen days, and drew on his own proposed draft of the Virginia Constitution, George Mason’s draft of the Virginia Declaration of Rights, and other sources. The other committee members made some changes, and a final draft was presented to the Congress on June 28, 1776.
The declaration was introduced on Friday, June 28, and congress began debate over its contents on Monday, July 1, resulting in the omission of a fourth of the text, including a passage critical of King George III and the slave trade. Jefferson resented the changes, but he did not speak publicly about the revisions.[d] On July 4, 1776, the Congress ratified the Declaration, and delegates signed it on August 2; in doing so, they were committing an act of treason against the Crown. Jefferson’s preamble is regarded as an enduring statement of human rights, and the phrase “all men are created equal” has been called “one of the best-known sentences in the English language” containing “the most potent and consequential words in American history”.
Virginia state legislator and governor
At the start of the Revolution, Jefferson was a Colonel and was named commander of the Albemarle County Militia on September 26, 1775. He was then elected to the Virginia House of Delegates for Albemarle County in September 1776, when finalizing a state constitution was a priority. For nearly three years, he assisted with the constitution and was especially proud of his Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom, which forbade state support of religious institutions or enforcement of religious doctrine. The bill failed to pass, as did his legislation to disestablish the Anglican church, but both were later revived by James Madison.
In 1778, Jefferson was given the task of revising the state’s laws. He drafted 126 bills in three years, including laws to streamline the judicial system. Jefferson’s proposed statutes provided for general education, which he considered the basis of “republican government”. He had become alarmed that Virginia’s powerful landed gentry were becoming a hereditary aristocracy. He took the lead in abolishing what he called “feudal and unnatural distinctions.” He targeted laws such as entail and primogeniture by which the oldest son inherited all the land. Theentail laws made it perpetual: the one who inherited the land could not sell it, but had to bequeath it to his oldest son. As a result, increasingly large plantations, worked by white tenant farmers and by black slaves, gained in size and wealth and political power in the eastern (“Tidewater”) tobacco areas. During the Revolutionary era, all such laws were repealed by the states that had them.
Jefferson was elected governor for one-year terms in 1779 and 1780.[50] He transferred the state capital from Williamsburg to Richmond, and introduced measures for public education, religious freedom, and revision of inheritance laws. During General Benedict Arnold’s 1781 invasion of Virginia, Jefferson escaped Richmond just ahead of the British forces, and the city was burned to the ground. General Charles Cornwallis that spring dispatched a cavalry force led by Banastre Tarleton to capture Jefferson and members of the Assembly at Monticello, but Jack Jouett of the Virginia militia thwarted the British plan. Jefferson escaped to Poplar Forest, his plantation to the west. When the General Assembly reconvened in June 1781, it conducted an inquiry into Jefferson’s actions which eventually concluded that Jefferson had acted with honor—but he was not re-elected.
In April of the same year, his daughter Lucy died at age one. A second daughter of that name was born the following year, but she died at age three.
Notes on the State of Virginia
Jefferson received a letter of inquiry in 1780 about the geography, history, and government of Virginia from French diplomat François Barbé-Marbois, who was gathering data on the United States. Jefferson included his written responses in a book, Notes on the State of Virginia (1785). He compiled the book over five years, including reviews of scientific knowledge, Virginia’s history, politics, laws, culture, and geography. The book explores what constitutes a good society, using Virginia as an exemplar. Jefferson included extensive data about the state’s natural resources and economy, and wrote at length about slavery, miscegenation, and his belief that blacks and whites could not live together as free people in one society because of justified resentments of the enslaved. He also wrote of his views on the American Indian and considered them as equals in body and mind to European settlers.
Notes was first published in 1785 in French and appeared in English in 1787. Biographer George Tuckerconsidered the work “surprising in the extent of the information which a single individual had been thus able to acquire, as to the physical features of the state”, and Merrill D. Peterson described it as an accomplishment for which all Americans should be grateful.
Member of Congress
The United States formed a Congress of the Confederation following victory in the Revolutionary War and a peace treaty with Great Britain in 1783, to which Jefferson was appointed as a Virginia delegate. He was a member of the committee setting foreign exchange rates and recommended an American currency based on the decimal system which was adopted. He advised formation of the Committee of the States to fill the power vacuum when Congress was in recess. The Committee met when Congress adjourned, but disagreements rendered it dysfunctional.
In the Congress’s 1783–84 session, Jefferson acted as chairman of committees to establish a viable system of government for the new Republic and to propose a policy for the settlement of the western territories. Jefferson was the principal author of the Land Ordinance of 1784, whereby Virginia ceded to the national government the vast area that it claimed northwest of the Ohio River. He insisted that this territory should not be used as colonial territory by any of the thirteen states, but that it should be divided into sections which could become states. He plotted borders for nine new states in their initial stages and wrote an ordinance banning slavery in all the nation’s territories. Congress made extensive revisions, including rejection of the ban on slavery. The provisions banning slavery were known later as the “Jefferson Proviso;” they were modified and implemented three years later in the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 and became the law for the entire Northwest. Minister to France
Jefferson was sent by the Congress of the Confederation to join Benjamin Franklin and John Adams as ministers in Europe for negotiation of trade agreements with England, Spain, and France. Some believed that the recently widowed Jefferson was depressed and that the assignment would distract him from his wife’s death. With his young daughter Patsy and two servants, he departed in July 1784, arriving in Paris the next month. French foreign minister Count de Vergennes commented, “You replace Monsieur Franklin, I hear.” Jefferson replied, “I succeed. No man can replace him.” Franklin resigned as minister in March 1785 and departed in July. Jefferson had Patsy educated at the Pentemont Abbey. In 1786, he met and fell in love with Maria Cosway, an accomplished—and married—Italian-English musician of 27. They saw each other frequently over a period of six weeks. She returned to Great Britain, but they maintained a lifelong correspondence.
Jefferson sent for his youngest surviving child, nine-year-old Polly, in June 1787. He brought some of his slaves, including James Hemings whom he had trained in French cuisine and his younger sister Sally Hemings. She lived in the Jefferson household in Paris for about two years. According to her son Madison Hemings, Sally and Jefferson began a sexual relationship in Paris and she became pregnant.
She was about 16 at the time. According to this story, she agreed to return to the United States as his concubine after he promised to free her children when they came of age. While in France, he became a regular companion of the Marquis de Lafayette, a French hero of the American Revolutionary War, and Jefferson used his influence to procure trade agreements with France. As the French Revolution began, Jefferson allowed his Paris residence, the Hôtel de Langeac, to be used for meetings by Lafayette and other republicans. He was in Paris during the storming of the Bastille and consulted with Lafayette while the latter drafted the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. Jefferson often found his mail opened by postmasters, so he invented his own enciphering device, the “Wheel Cipher”; he wrote important communications in code for the rest of his career. Jefferson left Paris in September 1789, intending to return soon; however, President George Washington appointed him the country’s first Secretary of State, forcing him to remain. Jefferson remained a firm supporter of the French Revolution, while opposing its more violent elements.
Secretary of State
Soon after returning from France, Jefferson accepted Washington’s invitation to serve as Secretary of State.Jefferson had initially expected to return to France, but Washington insisted that he be on his new Cabinet. Pressing issues at this time were the national debt and the permanent location of the capital. Jefferson opposed a national debt, preferring that each state retire its own, in contrast to Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton, who desired consolidation of various states’ debts by the federal government. Hamilton also had bold plans to establish the national credit and a national bank, but Jefferson strenuously opposed this and attempted to undermine his agenda, which nearly led Washington to dismiss him from his cabinet. Jefferson later left the cabinet voluntarily; Washington never forgave him, and never spoke to him again.
The second major issue was the capital’s permanent location. Hamilton favored a capital close to the major commercial centers of the Northeast, while Washington, Jefferson, and other agrarians wanted it located to the south. After lengthy deadlock, the Compromise of 1790 was struck, permanently locating the capital on the Potomac River, and the federal government assumed the war debts of all thirteen states.
In the Spring of 1791, Jefferson and Congressman James Madison took a vacation to Vermont. Jefferson had been suffering from migraines and he was tired of Hamilton in-fighting. In May 1792, Jefferson was alarmed at the political rivalries taking shape; he wrote to Washington, urging him to run for re-election that year as a unifying influence. He urged the president to rally the citizenry to a party that would defend democracy against the corrupting influence of banks and monied interests, as espoused by the Federalists. Historians recognize this letter as the earliest delineation of Democratic-Republican Party principles. Jefferson, Madison, and other Democratic-Republican organizers favored states’ rights and local control and opposed federal concentration of power, whereas Hamilton sought more power for the federal government.
Jefferson supported France against Britain when the two nations fought in 1793, though his arguments in the Cabinet were undercut by French Revolutionary envoy Edmond-Charles Genêt’s open scorn for President Washington.[93] In his discussions with British Minister George Hammond, Jefferson tried unsuccessfully to persuade the British to acknowledge their violation of the Treaty of Paris, to vacate their posts in the Northwest, and to compensate the U.S. for slaves whom the British had freed at the end of the war. Seeking a return to private life, Jefferson resigned the cabinet position in December 1793, perhaps to bolster his political influence from outside the administration.
After the Washington administration negotiated the Jay Treaty with Great Britain (1794), Jefferson saw a cause around which to rally his party and organized a national opposition from Monticello. The treaty, designed by Hamilton, aimed to reduce tensions and increase trade. Jefferson warned that it would increase British influence and subvert republicanism, calling it “the boldest act [Hamilton and Jay] ever ventured on to undermine the government”. The Treaty passed, but it expired in 1805 during Jefferson’s administration and was not renewed. Jefferson continued his pro-French stance; during the violence of the Reign of Terror, he declined to disavow the revolution: “To back away from France would be to undermine the cause of republicanism in America.”
Election of 1796 and Vice Presidency
In the presidential campaign of 1796, Jefferson lost the electoral college vote to Federalist John Adams by 71–68 and was elected vice president because of a mistake in voting for Adams’ running mate. As presiding officer of the Senate, he assumed a more passive role than his predecessor John Adams. He allowed the Senate to freely conduct debates and confined his participation to procedural issues, which he called an “honorable and easy” role. Jefferson had previously studied parliamentary law and procedure for forty years, making him unusually well qualified to serve as presiding officer. In 1800, he published his assembled notes on Senate procedure as A Manual of Parliamentary Practice.
Jefferson held four confidential talks with French consul Joseph Létombe in the spring of 1797 where he attacked Adams, predicting that his rival would serve only one term. He also encouraged France to invade England, and advised Létombe to stall any American envoys sent to Paris by instructing him to “listen to them and then drag out the negotiations at length and mollify them by the urbanity of the proceedings.”This toughened the tone that the French government adopted toward the Adams administration. After Adams’ initial peace envoys were rebuffed, Jefferson and his supporters lobbied for the release of papers related to the incident, called the XYZ Affair after the letters used to disguise the identities of the French officials involved. However, the tactic backfired when it was revealed that French officials had demanded bribes, rallying public support against France. The U.S. began an undeclared naval war with France known as the Quasi-War.During the Adams presidency, the Federalists rebuilt the military, levied new taxes, and enacted the Alien and Sedition Acts. Jefferson believed that these laws were intended to suppress Democratic-Republicans, rather than prosecute enemy aliens, and considered them unconstitutional. To rally opposition, he and James Madison anonymously wrote the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, declaring that the federal government had no right to exercise powers not specifically delegated to it by the states. The resolutions followed the “interposition” approach of Madison, in which states may shield their citizens from federal laws that they deem unconstitutional. Jefferson advocated nullification, allowing states to invalidate federal laws altogether. Jefferson warned that, “unless arrested at the threshold”, the Alien and Sedition Acts would “necessarily drive these states into revolution and blood”. Historian Ron Chernow claims that “the theoretical damage of the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions was deep and lasting, and was a recipe for disunion”, contributing to the American Civil War as well as later events. Washington was so appalled by the resolutions that he told Patrick Henry that, if “systematically and pertinaciously pursued”, the resolutions would “dissolve the union or produce coercion.”
Jefferson and Madison moved to Philadelphia and founded the National Gazette in 1791, along with poet and writer Phillip Freneau, in an effort to counter Hamilton’s Federalist policies, which Hamilton was promoting through the influential Federalist newspaper the Gazette of the United States. The National Gazette made particular criticism of the policies promoted by Alexander Hamilton, often through anonymous essays signed by the pen name Brutus at Jefferson’s urging, which were actually written by Madison.
Jefferson had always admired Washington’s leadership skills but felt that his Federalist party was leading the country in the wrong direction. Jefferson thought it wise not to attend his funeral in 1799 because of acute differences with Washington while serving as Secretary of State, and remained at Monticello.
Election of 1800
In the 1800 presidential election, Jefferson contended once more against Federalist John Adams. Adams’ campaign was weakened by unpopular taxes and vicious Federalist infighting over his actions in the Quasi-War. Republicans pointed to the Alien and Sedition Acts and accused the Federalists of being secret monarchists, while Federalists charged that Jefferson was a godless libertine in thrall to the French. Historian Joyce Appleby said the election was “one of the most acrimonious in the annals of American history”.
Republicans ultimately won more electoral college votes, but Jefferson and his vice presidential candidate Aaron Burr unexpectedly received an equal total. Due to the tie, the election was decided by the Federalist-dominated House of Representatives. Hamilton lobbied Federalist representatives on Jefferson’s behalf, believing him a lesser political evil than Burr. On February 17, 1801, after thirty-six ballots, the House elected Jefferson president and Burr vice president.
The win was marked by Republican celebrations throughout the country. Some of Jefferson’s opponents argued that he owed his victory over Adams to the South’s inflated number of electors, due to counting slaves as partial population under the Three-Fifths Compromise.” Others alleged that Jefferson secured James Asheton Bayard’s tie-breaking electoral vote by guaranteeing the retention of various Federalist posts in the government. Jefferson disputed the allegation, and the historical record is inconclusive.
The transition proceeded smoothly, marking a watershed in American history. As historian Gordon S. Wood writes, “it was one of the first popular elections in modern history that resulted in the peaceful transfer of power from one ‘party’ to another.”
Jefferson was sworn in by Chief Justice John Marshall at the new Capitol in Washington, D.C. on March 4, 1801. In contrast to his predecessors, Jefferson exhibited a dislike of formal etiquette; he arrived alone on horseback without escort, dressed plainly and, after dismounting, retired his own horse to the nearby stable. His inaugural address struck a note of reconciliation, declaring, “We have been called by different names brethren of the same principle. We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists.” Ideologically, Jefferson stressed “equal and exact justice to all men”, minority rights, and freedom of speech, religion, and press. He said that a free and democratic government was “the strongest government on earth.” He nominated moderate Republicans to his cabinet: James Madison as Secretary of State, Henry Dearborn as Secretary of War, Levi Lincoln as Attorney General, and Robert Smith as Secretary of the Navy.
Upon assuming office, he first confronted an $83 million national debt. He began dismantling Hamilton’s Federalist fiscal system with help from Secretary of Treasury Albert Gallatin. Jefferson’s administration eliminated the whiskey excise and other taxes after closing “unnecessary offices” and cutting “useless establishments and expenses”. They attempted to disassemble the national bank and its effect of increasing national debt, but were dissuaded by Gallatin. Jefferson shrank the Navy, deeming it unnecessary in peacetime. Instead, he incorporated a fleet of inexpensive gunboats used only for defense with the idea that they would not provoke foreign hostilities. After two terms, he had lowered the national debt from $83 million to $57 million.
Jefferson pardoned several of those imprisoned under the Alien and Sedition Acts. Congressional Republicans repealed the Judiciary Act of 1801, which removed nearly all of Adams’ “midnight judges” from office. A subsequent appointment battle led to the Supreme Court’s landmark decision in Marbury v. Madison, asserting judicial review over executive branch actions. Jefferson appointed three Supreme Court justices: William Johnson (1804), Henry Brockholst Livingston (1807), and Thomas Todd (1807).
Jefferson strongly felt the need for a national military university, producing an officer engineering corps for a national defense based on the advancement of the sciences, rather than having to rely on foreign sources for top grade engineers with questionable loyalty. He signed the Military Peace Establishment Act on March 16, 1802, thus founding the United States Military Academy at West Point. The Act documented in 29 sections a new set of laws and limits for the military. Jefferson was also hoping to bring reform to the Executive branch, replacing Federalists and active opponents throughout the officer corps to promote Republican values.
First Barbary War
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American merchant ships had been protected from Barbary Coast pirates by the Royal Navy when the states were British colonies. After independence, however, pirates often captured U.S. merchant ships, pillaged cargoes, and enslaved or held crew members for ransom. Jefferson had opposed paying tribute to the Barbary States since 1785. In March 1786, he and John Adams went to London to negotiate with Tripoli’s envoy, ambassador Sidi Haji Abdrahaman (or Sidi Haji Abdul Rahman Adja). In 1801, he authorized a U.S. Navy fleet under Commodore Richard Dale to make a show of force in the Mediterranean, the first American naval squadron to cross the Atlantic. Following the fleet’s first engagement, he successfully asked Congress for a declaration of war. The subsequent “First Barbary War” was the first foreign war fought by the U.S.
Pasha of Tripoli Yusuf Karamanli captured the USS Philadelphia, so Jefferson authorized William Eaton, the U.S. Consul to Tunis, to lead a force to restore the pasha’s older brother to the throne. The American navy forced Tunis and Algiers into breaking their alliance with Tripoli. Jefferson ordered five separate naval bombardments of Tripoli, leading the pasha to sign a treaty that restored peace in the Mediterranean.[141] This victory proved only temporary, but according to Wood, “many Americans celebrated it as a vindication of their policy of spreading free trade around the world and as a great victory for liberty over tyranny.”
Louisiana Purchase
Spain ceded ownership of the Louisiana territory in 1800 to the more predominant France. Jefferson was greatly concerned that Napoleon’s broad interests in the vast territory would threaten the security of the continent and Mississippi Rivershipping. He wrote that the cession “works most sorely on the U.S. It completely reverses all the political relations of the U.S.”  In 1802, he instructed James Monroe and Robert R. Livingston to negotiate with Napoleon to purchase New Orleans and adjacent coastal areas from France. In early 1803, Jefferson offered Napoleon nearly $10 million for 40,000 square miles (100,000 square kilometres) of tropical territory.
Napoleon realized that French military control was impractical over such a vast remote territory, and he was in dire need of funds for his wars on the home front. In early April 1803, he unexpectedly made negotiators a counter-offer to sell 827,987 square miles (2,144,480 square kilometres) of French territory for $15 million, doubling the size of the United States. U.S. negotiators seized this unique opportunity and accepted the offer and signed the treaty on April 30, 1803. Word of the unexpected purchase didn’t reach Jefferson until July 3, 1803. He unknowingly acquired the most fertile tract of land of its size on Earth, making the new country self-sufficient in food and other resources. The sale also significantly curtailed British and French imperial ambitions in North America, removing obstacles to U.S. westward expansion.
Most thought that this was an exceptional opportunity, despite Republican reservations about the Constitutional authority of the federal government to acquire land. Jefferson initially thought that a Constitutional amendment was necessary to purchase and govern the new territory; but he later changed his mind, fearing that this would give cause to oppose the purchase, and he therefore urged a speedy debate and ratification. On October 20, 1803, the Senate ratified the purchase treaty by a vote of 24–7.
After the purchase, Jefferson preserved the region’s Spanish legal code and instituted a gradual approach for integrating settlers into American democracy. He believed that a period of federal rule would be necessary while Louisianians adjusted to their new nation. Historians have differed in their assessments regarding the constitutional implications of the sale, but they typically hail the Louisiana acquisition as a major accomplishment. Frederick Jackson Turner called the purchase the most formative event in American history. Lewis and Clark expedition
Jefferson anticipated further westward settlements due to the Louisiana Purchase and arranged for the exploration and mapping of the uncharted territory. He sought to establish a U.S. claim ahead of competing European interests and to find the rumored Northwest Passage. Jefferson and others were influenced by exploration accounts of Le Page du Pratz in Louisiana (1763) and Captain James Cook in the Pacific (1784),[154] and they persuaded Congress in 1804 to fund an expedition to explore and map the newly acquired territory to the Pacific Ocean.
Jefferson appointed Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to be leaders of the Corps of Discovery (1803–1806). In the months leading up to the expedition, Jefferson tutored Lewis in the sciences of mapping, botany, natural history, mineralogy, and astronomy and navigation, giving him unlimited access to his library at Monticello, which included the largest collection of books in the world on the subject of the geography and natural history of the North American continent, along with an impressive collection of maps.
The expedition lasted from May 1804 to September 1806  and obtained a wealth of scientific and geographic knowledge, including knowledge of many Indian tribes.
Other expeditions
In addition to the Corps of Discovery, Jefferson organized three other western expeditions: the William Dunbar and George Hunter expedition on the Ouachita River (1804–1805), the Thomas Freeman and Peter Custis expedition(1806) on the Red River, and the Zebulon Pike expedition (1806–1807) into the Rocky Mountains and the Southwest. All three produced valuable information about the American frontier.
American Indian policies
Jefferson’s experiences with the American Indians began during his boyhood in Virginia and extended through his political career and into his retirement. He refuted the contemporary notion that Indians were an inferior people and maintained that they were equal in body and mind to people of European descent.
As governor of Virginia during the Revolutionary War, Jefferson recommended moving the Cherokee and Shawnee tribes, who had allied with the British, to west of the Mississippi River. But when he took office as President, he quickly took measures to avert another major conflict, as American and Indian societies were in collision and the British were inciting Indian tribes from Canada. In Georgia, he stipulated that the state would release its legal claims for lands to its west in exchange for military support in expelling the Cherokee from Georgia. This facilitated his policy of western expansion, to “advance compactly as we multiply”.
In keeping with his Enlightenment thinking, President Jefferson adopted an assimilation policy towards American Indians known as his “civilization program” which included securing peaceful U.S. – Indian treaty alliances and encouraging agriculture. Jefferson advocated that Indian tribes should make federal purchases by credit holding their lands as collateral for repayment. Various tribes accepted Jefferson’s policies, including the Shawnees led by Black Hoof, the Creek, and the Cherokees. However, some Shawnees broke off from Black Hoof, led by Tecumseh, and opposed Jefferson’s assimilation policies.
Historian Bernard Sheehan argues that Jefferson believed that assimilation was best for American Indians; second best was removal to the west. He felt that the worst outcome of the cultural and resources conflict between American citizens and American Indians would be their attacking the whites. Jefferson told Secretary of War General Henry Dearborn (Indian affairs were then under the War Department), “If we are constrained to lift the hatchet against any tribe, we will never lay it down until that tribe is exterminated or driven beyond the Mississippi.” Miller agrees that Jefferson believed that Indians should assimilate to American customs and agriculture. Historians such as Peter S. Onuf and Merrill D. Peterson argue that Jefferson’s actual Indian policies did little to promote assimilation and were a pretext to seize lands.
Re-election in 1804 and second term
Jefferson’s successful first term occasioned his re-nomination for president by the Republican party, with George Clinton replacing Burr as his running mate. The Federalist party ran Charles Cotesworth Pinckney of South Carolina, John Adams’ vice presidential candidate in the 1800 election. The Jefferson-Clinton ticket won overwhelmingly in the electoral college vote, by 162 to 14, promoting their achievement of a strong economy, lower taxes, and the Louisiana Purchase.
In March 1806, a split developed in the Republican party, led by fellow Virginian and former Republican ally John Randolph who viciously accused President Jefferson on the floor of the House of moving too far in the Federalist direction. In so doing, Randolph permanently set himself apart politically from Jefferson. Jefferson and Madison had backed resolutions to limit or ban British imports in retaliation for British actions against American shipping. Also, in 1808, Jefferson was the first president to propose a broad Federal plan to build roads and canals across several states, asking for $20 million, further alarming Randolph and believers of limited government.
Jefferson’s popularity further suffered in his second term due to his response to wars in Europe. Positive relations with Great Britain had diminished, due partly to the antipathy between Jefferson and British diplomat Anthony Merry. After Napoleon’s decisive victory at the Battle of Austerlitz in 1805, Napoleon became more aggressive in his negotiations over trading rights, which American efforts failed to counter. Jefferson then led the enactment of the Embargo Act of 1807, directed at both France and Great Britain. This triggered economic chaos in the U.S. and was strongly criticized at the time, resulting in Jefferson having to abandon the policy a year later.
During the revolutionary era, the states abolished the international slave trade, but South Carolina reopened it. In his annual message of December 1806, Jefferson denounced the “violations of human rights” attending the international slave trade, calling on the newly elected Congress to criminalize it immediately. In 1807, Congress passed the Act Prohibiting Importation of Slaves, which Jefferson signed. The act established severe punishment against the international slave trade, although it did not address the issue domestically.
In the wake of the Louisiana Purchase, Jefferson sought to annex Florida from Spain, as brokered by Napoleon. Congress agreed to the President’s request to secretly appropriate purchase money in the “$2,000,000 Bill”. The Congressional funding drew criticism from Randolph, who believed that the money would wind up in the coffers of Napoleon. The bill was signed into law; however, negotiations for the project failed. Jefferson lost clout among fellow Republicans, and his use of unofficial Congressional channels was sharply criticized. In Haiti, Jefferson’s neutrality had allowed arms to enable the slave independence movement during its Revolution, and blocked attempts to assist Napoleon, who was defeated there in 1803. But he refused official recognition of the country during his second term, in deference to southern complaints about the racial violence against slave-holders; it was eventually extended to Haiti in 1862. Domestically, Jefferson’s grandson James Madison Randolph became the first child born in the White House in 1806.
Burr conspiracy and trial
Following the 1801 electoral deadlock, Jefferson’s relationship rapidly eroded with his Vice President, former New York Senator Aaron Burr. Jefferson suspected Burr of seeking the presidency for himself, while Burr was angered by Jefferson’s refusal to appoint some of his supporters to federal office. Burr was dropped from the Republican ticket in 1804.
The same year, Burr was soundly defeated in his bid to be elected New York governor. During the campaign, Alexander Hamilton publicly made callous remarks regarding Burr’s moral character. Subsequently, Burr challenged Hamilton to a duel, mortally wounding and killing Hamilton on July 11, 1804. Burr was indicted for Hamilton’s murder in New York and New Jersey, causing him to flee to Georgia, although he remained President of the Senate during Supreme Court Justice Samuel Chase’s impeachment trial. Both indictments quietly died and Burr was not prosecuted. Also during the election, certain New England separatists approached Burr, desiring a New England federation and intimating that he would be their leader. However, nothing came of the plot, since Burr had lost the election and his reputation was ruined after killing Hamilton. In August 1804, Burr contacted British Minister Anthony Merry offering to capture U.S. western territory in return for money and British ships.
After leaving office in April 1805, Burr traveled west and conspired with Louisiana Territory governor James Wilkinson, beginning a large-scale recruitment for a military expedition.
 Other plotters included Ohio Senator John Smith and an Irishman named Harmon Blennerhassett. Burr discussed a number of plots—seizing control of Mexico or Spanish Florida, or forming a secessionist state in New Orleans or the Western U.S. Historians remain unclear as to his true goal.
In the fall of 1806, Burr launched a military flotilla carrying about 60 men down the Ohio River. Wilkinson renounced the plot, apparently from self-interested motives; he reported Burr’s expedition to Jefferson, who immediately ordered Burr’s arrest. On February 13, 1807, Burr was captured in Louisiana’s Bayou Pierre wilderness and sent to Virginia to be tried for treason.
Burr’s 1807 conspiracy trial became a national issue. Jefferson attempted to preemptively influence the verdict by telling Congress that Burr’s guilt was “beyond question”, but the case came before his longtime political foe John Marshall, who dismissed the treason charge. Burr’s legal team at one stage subpoenaed Jefferson, but Jefferson refused to testify, making the first argument for executive privilege. Instead, Jefferson provided relevant legal documents. After a three-month trial, the jury found Burr not guilty, while Jefferson denounced his acquittal. Jefferson subsequently removed Wilkinson as territorial governor but retained him in the U.S. military. Historian James N. Banner criticized Jefferson for continuing to trust Wilkinson, a “faithless plotter”. Chesapeake–Leopard Affair and Embargo Act
The British conducted raids on American shipping and kidnapped seamen in 1806–07; thousands of Americans were thus impressed into the British naval service. In 1806, Jefferson issued a call for a boycott of British goods; on April 18, Congress passed the Non-Importation Acts, but they were never enforced. Later that year, Jefferson asked James Monroe and William Pinkney to negotiate with Great Britain to end the harassment of American shipping, though Britain showed no signs of improving relations. The Monroe–Pinkney Treaty was finalized but lacked any provisions to end impressment, and Jefferson refused to submit it to the Senate for ratification.
The British ship HMS Leopard fired upon the USS Chesapeake off the Virginia coast in June 1807, and Jefferson prepared for war. He issued a proclamation banning armed British ships from U.S. waters. He presumed unilateral authority to call on the states to prepare 100,000 militia and ordered the purchase of arms, ammunition, and supplies, writing, “The laws of necessity, of self-preservation, of saving our country when in danger, are of higher obligation [than strict observance of written laws]”. The USS Revenge was dispatched to demand an explanation from the British government; it also was fired upon. Jefferson called for a special session of Congress in October to enact an embargo or alternatively to consider war.
In December, news arrived that Napoleon had extended the Berlin Decree, globally banning British imports. In Britain, King George III ordered redoubling efforts at impressment, including American sailors. But the war fever of the summer faded; Congress had no appetite to prepare the U.S. for war. Jefferson asked for and received the Embargo Act, an alternative that allowed the U.S. more time to build up defensive works, militias, and naval forces. Later historians have seen irony in Jefferson’s assertion of such federal power. Meacham claims that the Embargo Act was a projection of power which surpassed the Alien and Sedition Acts, and R.B. Bernstein writes that Jefferson “was pursuing policies resembling those he had cited in 1776 as grounds for independence and revolution”.
Secretary of State James Madison supported the embargo with equal vigor to Jefferson, while Treasury Secretary Gallatin opposed it, due to its indefinite time frame and the risk that it posed to the policy of American neutrality. The U.S. economy suffered, criticism grew, and opponents began evading the embargo. Instead of retreating, Jefferson sent federal agents to secretly track down smugglers and violators. Three acts were passed in Congress during 1807 and 1808, called the Supplementary, theAdditional, and the Enforcement acts. The government could not prevent American vessels from trading with the European belligerents once they had left American ports, although the embargo triggered a devastating decline in exports. Most historians consider Jefferson’s embargo to have been ineffective and harmful to American interests. Appleby describes the strategy as Jefferson’s “least effective policy”, and Joseph Ellis calls it “an unadulterated calamity”. Others, however, portray it as an innovative, nonviolent measure which aided France in its war with Britain while preserving American neutrality. Jefferson believed that the failure of the embargo was due to selfish traders and merchants showing a lack of “republican virtue.” He maintained that, had the embargo been widely observed, it would have avoided war in 1812.
In December 1807, Jefferson announced his intention not to seek a third term. He turned his attention increasingly to Monticello during the last year of his presidency, giving Madison and Gallatin almost total control of affairs.Shortly before leaving office in March 1809, Jefferson signed the repeal of the Embargo. In its place, the Non-Intercourse Act was passed, but it proved no more effective. The day before Madison was inaugurated as his successor, Jefferson said that he felt like “a prisoner, released from his chains”.
Retirement and later years
Following his retirement from the presidency, Jefferson continued his pursuit of educational interests; he sold his vast collection of books to the Library of Congress, and founded and built the University of Virginia. Jefferson continued to correspond with many of the country’s leaders, and the Monroe Doctrine bears a strong resemblance to solicited advice that Jefferson gave to Monroe in 1823. As he settled into private life at Monticello, Jefferson developed a daily routine of rising early. He would spend several hours writing letters, with which he was often deluged. In the midday, he would often inspect the plantation on horseback. In the evenings, his family enjoyed leisure time in the gardens; late at night, Jefferson would retire to bed with a book. However, his routine was often interrupted by uninvited visitors and tourists eager to see the icon in his final days, turning Monticello into “a virtual hotel”.
University of Virginia
Jefferson envisioned a university free of church influences where students could specialize in many new areas not offered at other colleges. He believed that education engendered a stable society, which should provide publicly funded schools accessible to students from all social strata, based solely on ability. He initially proposed his University in a letter to Joseph Priestley in 1800 and, in 1819, the 76-year-old Jefferson founded the University of Virginia. He organized the state legislative campaign for its charter and, with the assistance of Edmund Bacon, purchased the location. He was the principal designer of the buildings, planned the university’s curriculum, and served as the first rector upon its opening in 1825.
Jefferson was a strong disciple of Greek and Roman architectural styles, which he believed to be most representative of American democracy. Each academic unit, called a pavilion, was designed with a two-story temple front, while the library “Rotunda” was modeled on the Roman Pantheon. Jefferson referred to the university’s grounds as the “Academical Village,” and he reflected his educational ideas in its layout. The ten pavilions included classrooms and faculty residences; they formed a quadrangle and were connected by colonnades, behind which stood the students’ rows of rooms. Gardens and vegetable plots were placed behind the pavilions and were surrounded by serpentine walls, affirming the importance of the agrarian lifestyle. The university had a library rather than a church at its center, emphasizing its secular nature—a controversial aspect at the time.When Jefferson died in 1826, James Madison replaced him as rector. Jefferson bequeathed most of his library to the university.
Reconciliation with Adams
Jefferson and John Adams had been good friends in the first decades of their political careers, serving together in the Continental Congress in the 1770s and in Europe in the 1780s. The Federalist/Republican split of the 1790s divided them, however, and Adams felt betrayed by Jefferson’s sponsorship of partisan attacks, such as those of James Callender. Jefferson, on the other hand, was angered at Adams for his appointment of “midnight judges”.The two men did not communicate directly for more than a decade after Jefferson succeeded Adams as president. A brief correspondence took place between Abigail Adams and Jefferson after Jefferson’s daughter “Polly” died in 1804, in an attempt at reconciliation unknown to Adams. However, an exchange of letters resumed open hostilities between Adams and Jefferson.
As early as 1809, Benjamin Rush, signer of the Declaration of Independence, desired that Jefferson and Adams reconcile and began to prod the two through correspondence to re-establish contact.In 1812, Adams wrote a short New Year’s greeting to Jefferson, prompted earlier by Rush, to which Jefferson warmly responded. Thus began what historian David McCulloughcalls “one of the most extraordinary correspondences in American history”. Over the next fourteen years, the former presidents exchanged 158 letters discussing their political differences, justifying their respective roles in events, and debating the revolution’s import to the world.When Adams died, his last words included an acknowledgement of his longtime friend and rival: “Thomas Jefferson survives”, unaware that Jefferson had died several hours before.
Autobiography
In 1821, at the age of 77 Jefferson began writing his autobiography, in order to “state some recollections of dates and facts concerning myself.” He focused on the struggles and achievements he experienced until July 29, 1790, where the narrative stopped short. He excluded his youth, emphasizing the revolutionary era. He related that his ancestors came from Wales to America in the early 17th century and settled in the western frontier of the Virginia colony, which influenced his zeal for individual and state rights. Jefferson described his father as uneducated, but with a “strong mind and sound judgement.” His enrollment in the College of William and Mary and election to the Continental Congress in Philadelphia in 1775 were included.
He also expressed opposition to the idea of a privileged aristocracy made up of large land owning families partial to the King, and instead promoted “the aristocracy of virtue and talent, which nature has wisely provided for the direction of the interests of society, & scattered with equal hand through all it’s conditions, was deemed essential to a well ordered republic.” 
Jefferson gave his insight about people, politics, and events. The work is primarily concerned with the Declaration and reforming the government of Virginia. He used notes, letters, and documents to tell many of the stories within the autobiography. He suggested that this history was so rich that his personal affairs were better overlooked, but he incorporated a self-analysis using the Declaration and other patriotism. Lafayette’s visit
In the summer of 1824, the Marquis de Lafayette accepted an invitation from President James Monroe to visit the country. Jefferson and Lafayette had not seen each other since 1789. After visits to New York, New England, and Washington, Lafayette arrived at Monticello on November 4.
Jefferson’s grandson Randolph was present and recorded the reunion: “As they approached each other, their uncertain gait quickened itself into a shuffling run, and exclaiming, ‘Ah Jefferson!’ ‘Ah Lafayette!’, they burst into tears as they fell into each other’s arms.” Jefferson and Lafayette then retired to the house to reminisce. The next morning Jefferson, Lafayette, and James Madison attended a tour and banquet at the University of Virginia. Jefferson had someone else read a speech he had prepared for Lafayette, as his voice was weak and could not carry. This was his last public presentation. After an 11-day visit, Lafayette bid Jefferson goodbye and departed Monticello.
Final days, death, and burial
Jefferson’s approximately $100,000 of debt weighed heavily on his mind in his final months, as it became increasingly clear that he would have little to leave to his heirs. In February 1826, he successfully applied to the General Assembly to hold a public lottery as a fund raiser.His health began to deteriorate in July 1825, due to a combination of rheumatism from arm and wrist injuries, as well as intestinal and urinary disorders and, by June 1826, he was confined to bed.On July 3, Jefferson was overcome by fever and declined an invitation to Washington to attend an anniversary celebration of the Declaration. During the last hours of his life, he was accompanied by family members and friends. On July 4 at 12:50 p.m., Jefferson died at age 83 on the fiftieth anniversary of the Declaration of Independence, and just a few hours before the death of John Adams.The sitting president was Adams’ son John Quincy, and he called the coincidence of their deaths on the nation’s anniversary “visible and palpable remarks of Divine Favor” Shortly after Jefferson had died, attendants found a gold locket on a chain around his neck, where it had rested for more than forty years, containing a small faded blue ribbon which tied a lock of his wife Martha’s brown hair.Jefferson’s remains were buried at Monticello, under a self-written epitaph:
Jefferson died deeply in debt, unable to pass on his estate freely to his heirs. He gave instructions in his will for disposal of his assets, including the freeing of Sally Hemings’ children; but his estate, possessions, and slaves were sold at public auctions starting in 1827. In 1831, Monticello was sold by Martha Jefferson Randolph and the other heirs.
Political, social, and religious views
Jefferson subscribed to the political ideals expounded by John Locke, Francis Bacon, and Isaac Newton, whom he considered the three greatest men that ever lived. He was also influenced by the writings of Gibbon, Hume, Robertson, Bolingbroke, Montesquieu, and Voltaire. Jefferson thought that the independent yeoman and agrarian life were ideals of republican virtues. He distrusted cities and financiers, favored decentralized government power, and believed that the tyranny that had plagued the common man in Europe was due to corrupt political establishments and monarchies. He supported efforts to disestablish the Church of England wrote theVirginia Statute for Religious Freedom, and he pressed for a wall of separation between church and state. The Republicans under Jefferson were strongly influenced by the 18th-century British Whig Party, who believed inlimited government. His Democratic-Republican Party became dominant in early American politics, and his views became known as Jeffersonian democracy.
Society and government
According to Jefferson’s philosophy, citizens have “certain inalienable rights” and “rightful liberty is unobstructed action according to our will, within limits drawn around us by the equal rights of others.” A staunch advocate of the jury system to protect people’s liberties, he proclaimed in 1801, “I consider [trial by jury] as the only anchor yet imagined by man, by which a government can be held to the principles of its constitution.”  Jeffersonian government not only prohibited individuals in society from infringing on the liberty of others, but also restrained itself from diminishing individual liberty as a protection against tyranny from the majority. Initially, Jefferson favored restricted voting to those who could actually have free exercise of their reason by escaping any corrupting dependence on others. He advocated enfranchising a majority of Virginians, seeking to expand suffrage to include “yeoman farmers” who owned their own land while excluding tenant farmers, city day laborers, vagrants, most Amerindians, and women. He was convinced that individual liberties were the fruit of political equality, which were threatened by arbitrary government. Excesses of democracy in his view were caused by institutional corruptions rather than human nature. He was less suspicious of a working democracy than many contemporaries.  As president, Jefferson feared that the Federalist system enacted by Washington and Adams had encouraged corrupting patronage and dependence. He tried to restore a balance between the state and federal governments more nearly reflecting the Articles of Confederation, seeking to reinforce state prerogatives where his party was in a majority. Jefferson was steeped in the British Whig tradition of the oppressed majority set against a repeatedly unresponsive court party in the Parliament. He justified small outbreaks of rebellion as necessary to get monarchial regimes to amend oppressive measures compromising popular liberties. In a republican regime ruled by the majority, he acknowledged “it will often be exercised when wrong”. But “the remedy is to set them right as to facts, pardon and pacify them.”  As Jefferson saw his party triumph in two terms of his presidency and launch into a third term under James Madison, his view of the U.S. as a continental republic and an “empire of liberty” grew more upbeat. On departing the presidency in 1809, he described America as “trusted with the destines of this solitary republic of the world, the only monument of human rights, and the sole depository of the sacred fire of freedom and self-government”.
Democracy
Jefferson considered democracy to be the expression of society, and promoted national self-determination, cultural uniformity, and education of all males of the commonwealth. He supported public education and a free press as essential components of a democratic nation.
After resigning as secretary of state in 1795, Jefferson focused on the electoral bases of the Republicans and Federalists. The “Republican” classification for which he advocated included “the entire body of landholders” everywhere and “the body of laborers” without land. Republicans united behind Jefferson as vice president, with the election of 1796 expanding democracy nationwide at grassroots levels. Jefferson promoted Republican candidates for local offices.
Beginning with Jefferson’s electioneering for the “revolution of 1800”, his political efforts were based on egalitarian appeals. In his later years, he referred to the 1800 election “as real a revolution in the principles of our government as that of ’76 was in its form”, one “not effected indeed by the sword … but by the … suffrage of the people.”  Voter participation grew during Jefferson’s presidency, increasing to “unimaginable levels” compared to the Federalist Era, with turnout of about 67,000 in 1800 rising to about 143,000 in 1804. At the onset of the Revolution, Jefferson accepted William Blackstone’s argument that property ownership would sufficiently empower voters’ independent judgement, but he sought to further expand suffrage by land distribution to the poor. In the heat of the Revolutionary Era and afterward, several states expanded voter eligibility from landed gentry to all propertied male, tax-paying citizens with Jefferson’s support. In retirement, he gradually became critical of his home state for violating “the principle of equal political rights”—the social right of universal male suffrage. He sought a “general suffrage” of all taxpayers and militia-men, and equal representation by population in the General Assembly to correct preferential treatment of the slave-holding regions. Religion
Baptized in his youth, Jefferson became a governing member of his local Episcopal Church in Charlottesville, which he later attended with his daughters. Influenced by Deist authors during his college years Jefferson abandoned “orthodox” Christianity after his review of New Testament teachings.  In 1803 he asserted, “I am Christian, in the only sense in which [Jesus] wished any one to be.” Jefferson later defined being a Christian as one who followed the simple teachings of Jesus. Jefferson compiled Jesus’ biblical teachings, omitting miraculous or supernatural references. He titled the work The Life and Morals of Jesus of Nazareth, known today as the Jefferson Bible. Peterson states Jefferson was a theist “whose God was the Creator of the universe … all the evidences of nature testified to His perfection; and man could rely on the harmony and beneficence of His work.” Jefferson was firmly anticlerical, writing in “every age, the priest has been hostile to liberty … they have perverted the purest religion ever preached to man into mystery and jargon.” The full letter to Horatio Spatford can be read at the National Archives. Jefferson once supported banning clergy from public office but later relented. 1777, he drafted the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom. Ratified in 1786, it made compelling attendance or contributions to any state-sanctioned religious establishment illegal and declared that men “shall be free to profess … their opinions in matters of religion.” The Statute is one of only three accomplishments he chose to have inscribed in the epitaph on his gravestone. Early in 1802, Jefferson wrote to the Danbury Connecticut Baptist Association, “that religion is a matter which lies solely between Man and his God.” He interpreted the First Amendment as having built “a wall of separation between Church and State.”The phrase ‘Separation of Church and State’ has been cited several times by the Supreme Court in its interpretation of the Establishment Clause.
Jefferson donated to the American Bible Society, saying the Four Evangelists delivered a “pure and sublime system of morality” to humanity. He thought Americans would rationally create “Apiarian” religion, extracting the best traditions of every denomination. And he contributed generously to several local denominations nearby Monticello. Acknowledging organized religion would always be factored into political life for good or ill, he encouraged reason over supernatural revelation to make inquiries into religion. He believed in a creator god, anafterlife, and the sum of religion as loving God and neighbors. But he also controversially renounced the conventional Christian Trinity, denying Jesus’ divinity as the Son of God.
Jefferson’s unorthodox religious beliefs became an important issue in the 1800 presidential election.Federalists attacked him as an atheist. As president, Jefferson countered the accusations by praising religion in his inaugural address and attending services at the Capitol. Banks
Jefferson distrusted government banks and opposed public borrowing, which he thought created long-term debt, bred monopolies, and invited dangerous speculation as opposed to productive labor. In one letter to Madison, he argued each generation should curtail all debt within 19 years, and not impose a long-term debt on subsequent generations. In 1791, President Washington asked Jefferson, then Secretary of State, and Hamilton, the Secretary of the Treasury, if the Congress had the authority to create anational bank. While Hamilton believed Congress had the authority, Jefferson and Madison thought a national bank would ignore the needs of individuals and farmers, and would violate the Tenth Amendment by assuming powers not granted to the federal government by the states. Jefferson used agrarian resistance to banks and speculators as the first defining principle of an opposition party, recruiting candidates for Congress on the issue as early as 1792.  As president, Jefferson was persuaded by Secretary of Treasury Albert Gallatin to leave the bank intact, but sought to restrain its influence. Slavery

Jefferson lived in a planter economy largely dependent upon slavery, and as a wealthy landholder, used slave labor for his household, plantation, and workshops. He first recorded his slaveholding in 1774, when he counted 41. Over his lifetime he owned about 600 slaves; he inherited about 175 while most of the remainder were born on his plantations.[ Jefferson purchased slaves in order to unite their families, and he sold about 110 for economic reasons, primarily slaves from his outlying farms. Many historians have described Jefferson as a benevolent slaveowner who didn’t overwork his slaves by the conventions of his time, and provided them log cabins with fireplaces, food, clothing and some household provisions, though slaves often had to make many of their own provisions. Additionally Jefferson gave his slaves financial and other incentives while also allowing them to grow gardens and raise their own chickens. The use of the whip was employed only in rare and extreme cases of fighting and stealing. Jefferson once said, “My first wish is that the labourers may be well treated”. Jefferson did not work his slaves on Sundays and Christmas and he allowed them more personal time during the winter months. Some scholars doubt Jefferson’s benevolence, however, noting cases of excessive slave whippings in his absence. His nail factory was also only staffed by child slaves, many of those boys became tradesmen. Burwell Colbert, who started his working life as a child in Monticello’s Nailery, was later promoted to the supervisory position of butler.Jefferson felt slavery was harmful to both slave and master, but had reservations about releasing unprepared slaves into freedom and advocated gradual emancipation. In 1779, he proposed gradual voluntary training and resettlement to the Virginia legislature, and three years later drafted legislation allowing owners to free their own slaves. In his draft of the Declaration of Independence, he included a section, stricken by other Southern delegates, criticizing King George III’s role in promoting slavery in the colonies. In 1784, Jefferson proposed the abolition of slavery in all western U.S. territories, limiting slave importation to 15 years. Congress, however, failed to pass his proposal by one vote. In 1787, Congress passed the Northwest Ordinance, a partial victory for Jefferson that terminated slavery in the Northwest Territory. Jefferson freed his slave Robert Hemings in 1794 and he freed his cook slave James Hemings in 1796. During his presidency Jefferson allowed the diffusion of slavery into the Louisiana Territory hoping to prevent slave uprisings in Virginia and to prevent South Carolina secession. In 1804, in a compromise on the slavery issue, Jefferson and Congress banned domestic slave trafficking for one year into the Louisiana Territory. In 1806 he officially called for anti-slavery legislation terminating the import or export of slaves. Congress passed the law in 1807, taking effect in 1818. In 1819, he strongly opposed a Missouri statehood application amendment that banned domestic slave importation and freed slaves at the age of 25 on grounds it would destroy the union. Jefferson freed his runaway slave Harriet Hemings in 1822.Upon his death in 1826, Jefferson freed five male Hemings slaves in his will.
Jefferson shared the common belief of his day that blacks were mentally and physically inferior, but argued they nonetheless had innate human rights. In Notes on the State of Virginia, he created controversy by calling slavery a moral evil for which the nation would ultimately have to account to God. He therefore supported colonization plans that would transport freed slaves to another country, such as Liberia or Sierra Leone, though he recognized the impracticability of such proposals.
During his presidency Jefferson was for the most part publicly silent on the issue of slavery and emancipation, as the Congressional debate over slavery and its extension caused a dangerous north-south rift among the states, with talk of a northern confederacy in New England. The violent attacks on white slave owners during the Haitian Revolution due to injustices under slavery supported Jefferson’s fears of a race war, increasing his reservations about promoting emancipation at that time. After numerous attempts and failures to bring about emancipation, Jefferson wrote privately in an 1805 letter to William A. Burwell, “I have long since given up the expectation of any early provision for the extinguishment of slavery among us.” That same year he also related this idea to George Logan, writing, “I have most carefully avoided every public act or manifestation on that subject.” 
Historical assessment
Scholars remain divided on whether Jefferson truly condemned slavery and how he changed. Francis D. Cogliano traces the development of competing emancipationist then revisionist and finally contextualist interpretations from the 1960s to the present. The emancipationist view, held by the various scholars at theThomas Jefferson Foundation, Douglas L. Wilson, and others maintains Jefferson was an opponent of slavery all his life, noting that he did what he could within the limited range of options available to him to undermine it, his many attempts at abolition legislation, the manner in which he provided for slaves, and his advocacy of their more humane treatment. The revisionist view, advanced by Paul Finkelman and others criticizes Jefferson for racism, for holding slaves, and for acting contrary to his words, as Jefferson never freed most of his slaves, and he remained silent on the issue while he was President. Contextualists such as Joseph J. Ellis emphasize a change in Jefferson’s thinking from emancipationist before 1783, noting a shift toward public passivity and procrastination on policy issues related to slavery. Jefferson seemed to yield to public opinion by 1794 as he laid the groundwork for his first presidential campaign against Adams in 1796.
Jefferson–Hemings controversy
Claims that Jefferson fathered Sally Hemings’ children have been debated since 1802. That year James T. Callender, after being denied a position as postmaster, alleged Jefferson had taken Hemings as a concubine and fathered several children with her. In 1998, a panel of researchers conducted a Y-DNA study of living descendants of Jefferson’s uncle, Field, and of a descendant of Hemings’ son, Eston Hemings. The results, published in the journal Nature, showed a match with the male Jefferson line. According to the Thomas Jefferson Foundation, since the results of the DNA tests were made public, most historians believe Jefferson had a relationship with Hemings. In 2000, the Thomas Jefferson Foundation (TJF) assembled a team of historians whose report concluded that “the DNA study … indicates a high probability that Thomas Jefferson fathered Eston Hemings.” Other scholars maintain the evidence is insufficient to prove Jefferson’s paternity conclusively. They note the possibility that additional Jefferson males, including his brother Randolph Jefferson and Randolph’s five sons, could have fathered Eston Hemings or Sally Hemings’ other children. After Thomas Jefferson’s death, although not formally manumitted, Sally Hemings was allowed by Jefferson’s daughter Martha to live in Charlottesville as a free woman until her death in 1835.
Interests and activities
Jefferson was a farmer, obsessed with new crops, soil conditions, garden designs, and scientific agricultural techniques. His main cash crop was tobacco, but its price was usually low and it was rarely profitable. He tried to achieve self-sufficiency with wheat, vegetables, flax, corn, hogs, sheep, poultry, and cattle to supply his family, slaves, and employees, but he had cash flow problems and was always in debt. In the field of architecture, Jefferson helped popularize the Neo-Palladian style in the United States utilizing designs for the Virginia State Capitol, the University of Virginia, Monticello, and others. Jefferson mastered architecture through self-study, using various books and classical architectural designs of the day. His primary authority was Andrea Palladio’s The Four Books of Architecture, which outlines the principles of classical design.
He was interested in birds and wine, and was a noted gourmet; he was also a prolific writer and linguist, and spoke several languages. As a naturalist, he was fascinated by the Natural Bridge geological formation, and in 1774 successfully acquired the Bridge by grant from George III. American Philosophical Society
Jefferson was a member of the American Philosophical Society for 35 years, beginning in 1780. Through the Society he advanced the sciences and Enlightenment ideals, emphasizing that knowledge of science reinforced and extended freedom. His Notes on the State of Virginia was written in part as a contribution to the Society. He became the Society’s third president on March 3, 1797, a few months after he was elected Vice President of the United States. In accepting, Jefferson stated: “I feel no qualification for this distinguished post but a sincere zeal for all the objects of our institution and an ardent desire to see knowledge so disseminated through the mass of mankind that it may at length reach even the extremes of society, beggars and kings.”
Jefferson served as APS President for the next eighteen years, including through both terms of his presidency. He introduced Meriwether Lewis to the Society, where various scientists tutored him in preparation for the Lewis and Clark Expedition. He resigned on January 20, 1815, but remained active through correspondence.
Linguistics
Jefferson had a lifelong interest in linguistics, could speak, read and write in a number of languages, including French, Greek, Italian, and German. In his early years he excelled in classical language while at boarding school where he received a classical education in Greek and Latin. Jefferson later came to regard the Greek language as the “perfect language” as expressed in its laws and philosophy. While attending the College of William & Mary, he taught himself Italian. Here Jefferson first became familiar with the Anglo-Saxonlanguage, especially as it was associated with English Common law and system of government and studied the language in a linguistic and philosophical capacity. He owned 17 volumes of Anglo-Saxon texts and grammar and later wrote an essay on the Anglo-Saxon language.
Jefferson claimed to have taught himself Spanish during his nineteen-day journey to France, using only a grammar guide and a copy of Don Quixote. Linguistics played a significant role in how Jefferson modeled and expressed political and philosophical ideas. He believed that the study of ancient languages was essential in understanding the roots of modern language. He collected and understood a number of American Indian vocabularies and instructed Lewis and Clark to record and collect various Indian languages during their Expedition. When Jefferson removed from Washington after his presidency, he packed 50 Native American vocabulary lists in a chest and transported them on a river boat back to Monticello along with the rest of his possessions. Somewhere along the journey, a thief stole the heavy chest, thinking it was full of valuables, but its contents were dumped into the James River when the thief discovered it was only filled with papers. Subsequently, 30 years of collecting were lost, with only a few fragments rescued from the muddy banks of the river.
Jefferson was not an outstanding orator and preferred to communicate through writing or remain silent if possible. Instead of delivering his State of the Union addresses himself, Jefferson wrote the annual messages and sent a representative to read them aloud in Congress. This started a tradition which continued until 1913, when President Woodrow Wilson (1913–1921) chose to deliver his own State of the Union address.
Inventions
Jefferson invented many small practical devices and improved contemporary inventions, including a revolving book-stand and a “Great Clock” powered by the gravitational pull on cannonballs. He improved the pedometer, thepolygraph (a device for duplicating writing), and the moldboard plow, an idea he never patented and gave to posterity. Jefferson can also be credited as the creator of the swivel chair, the first of which he created and used to write much of the Declaration of Independence.
As Minister to France, Jefferson was impressed by the military standardization program known as the Système Gribeauval, and initiated a program as president to develop interchangeable parts for firearms. For his inventiveness and ingenuity, he received several honorary Doctor of Law degrees. Historical reputation
Jefferson is an icon of individual liberty, democracy, and republicanism, hailed as the author of the Declaration of Independence, an architect of the American Revolution, and a renaissance man who promoted science and scholarship. The participatory democracy and expanded suffrage he championed defined his era and became a standard for later generations. Meacham opined, he was the most influential figure of the democratic republic in its first half century, succeeded by presidential adherents James Madison, James Monroe, Andrew Jackson, and Martin Van Buren. Jefferson is recognized for having written more than 18,000 letters of political and philosophical substance during his life, which Francis D. Cogliano describes as “a documentary legacy … unprecedented in American history in its size and breadth.”
Jefferson’s reputation declined during the Civil War due to his support of states’ rights. In the late 19th century, his legacy was widely criticized; conservatives felt his democratic philosophy had led to that era’s populist movement, while Progressives sought a more activist federal government than Jefferson’s philosophy allowed. Both groups saw Hamilton as vindicated by history, rather than Jefferson, and President Woodrow Wilson even described Jefferson as “though a great man, not a great American”.
In the 1930s, Jefferson was held in higher esteem; President Franklin D. Roosevelt (1933–45) and New Deal Democrats celebrated his struggles for “the common man” and reclaimed him as their party’s founder. Jefferson became a symbol of American democracy in the incipient Cold War, and the 1940s and ’50s saw the zenith of his popular reputation. Following the Civil Rights Movementof the 1950s and ’60s, Jefferson’s slaveholding came under new scrutiny, particularly after DNA testing in the late 1990s supported allegations he had a relationship with Sally Hemings. Noting the huge output of scholarly books on Jefferson in recent years, historian Gordon Wood summarizes the raging debates about Jefferson’s stature: “Although many historians and others are embarrassed about his contradictions and have sought to knock him off the democratic pedestal … his position, though shaky, still seems secure.”The Siena Research Institute poll of presidential scholars, begun in 1982, has consistently ranked Jefferson as one of the five best U.S. presidents, and a 2015 Brookings Institution poll of American Political Science Associationmembers ranked him as the fifth greatest president.
Memorials and honors
Jefferson has been memorialized with buildings, sculptures, postage, and currency. In the 1920s, Jefferson, together with George Washington, Theodore Roosevelt, and Abraham Lincoln, was chosen by sculptor Gutzon Borglum and approved by President Calvin Coolidge to be depicted in stone at the Mount Rushmore Memorial.
The Jefferson Memorial was dedicated in Washington, D.C. in 1943, on the 200th anniversary of Jefferson’s birth. The interior of the memorial includes a 19-foot (6 m) statue of Jefferson and engravings of passages from his writings. Most prominent are the words inscribed around the monument near the roof: “I have sworn upon the altar of God eternal hostility against every form of tyranny over the mind of man.”

Johnson, Henry

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ohnson, Henry
1840 to 1901
Anglican (CMS)
Sierra Leone / Nigeria
A son of Yoruba recaptives, Henry Johnson was born in Hastings, Sierra Leone, in October of 1840. His father Henry “Erugunjimi” Johnson hailed from Gbagere compound in the defunct Oyo metropolis of what is today Nigeria. He had been captured in the slave raiding wars that followed the violent dissolution of the metropolis, beginning from the second decade of the nineteenth century. He was rescued at sea by the British patrol squadron and resettled in Hastings, Sierra Leone, where he married Sarah, another Yoruba recaptive, in the late 1830s.

Henry Johnson, son, was born at a time when the fledgling Sierra Leone community of creoles was beset with the problem of identity in a westernizing but ambivalent social environment. Over the years, from about 1815 when they were invited to work in the colony, the CMS mission hoped to raise African mission agency through the children of the recaptive settlers who passed through their school system. By the 1840s, the hope that this method would yield the desired fruit was still current among the missionaries except the one in charge of the parish at Hastings. He had observed a growing trend among these young people who were expected someday to become evangelists to their peoples in the interior of Africa; they were not interested in the regimen of social and religious life for which the missionaries were preparing them. The boys in particular were not turning out right. According to the missionary,
It generally happens that [they] gradually leave school without giving us an opportunity of following them with a watchful eye to their future sphere. Some go to other towns among strangers, others fall into bad company at home and never seldom visit a place of worship: and thus we are mostly left with a set of new children.
Graf further remarked that these children, with the exception of a few, “present a mass of unsanctified intellect….Some boldly abuse and despise their parents; others, too idle to work, live by hawking, thieving, imposition. Some spend their talents out of the colony at merchants’ factories in dirty concubinage or else help trading in the neighboring rivers in the midst of various vices…”

The colony, as a meeting point of European and African cultures, became a source temptation to these colony-born young people. They despised their parents’ African culture while being attracted to the European lifestyle they saw in Freetown for which they had no resources or qualifications. The missionary in Hastings was the first to identify this problem and he set to work against it in his own parish. Graf took particular interest in his parish school, making sure that the teachers exercised a wholesome influence on the children. He also took an interest in the young people in his church, especially being mindful that they were creatively engaged during the vacant hours of the day.

Henry Johnson was nurtured in this religio-cultural environment and profited from Graf’s crusade for a better future for the young colony born creoles of Sierra Leone. As a result, he proceeded to the Grammar School in Freetown in June 1855. At the completion of his studies, he taught there for eight years, from 1857 to 1865. Shortly after he began his teaching service at the Grammar School, his parents were recruited by Rev. David Hinderer in 1857 for service with the newly opened mission at Ibadan in the Yoruba country.

Early in 1865, his father died at Ibadan. Henry Johnson proceeded to the Church Missionary College, Islington, London, where he studied Hebrew and comparative philology among other courses to prepare him for translation work in West Africa. While studying, he was ordained a deacon on December 3, 1866, by Bishop Anderson in London. The following year, in December of 1867, he was consecrated a priest by the bishop of London.

Henry Johnson returned to Freetown in December of 1869. In January of 1870, he began work at his station at Boom Fall, in the troubled Sherbro country. There he engaged in translating and reducing the Mende language into writing. This involved the translation of the books of the New Testament into the mother tongue and compilation of local children’s fables into English. Alongside the language work and direction of the school, he did chaplaincy work among the Sierra Leonean traders on the rivers who had lapsed from the faith and were living in the midst of vices.

Henry Johnson approached his task with speed on arriving in Sherbro. By March of 1870, he had completed the translation of the Gospel of St. Luke and had collected some local Mende stories for Mr. Schön in London. Nevertheless, the school had difficulty. He hesitated in carrying out this additional assignment to start a vernacular school at his station because of the unsettled nature of the country. When he eventually started, parents would not bring their children unless they were to be taught in English. The situation forced him to suspend the vernacular teaching program in order to have pupils in the school. It was the first in the whole country of Sherbro and Mende. However, as he had anticipated, the unsettled nature of the country affected attendance. Three months after starting the school, barely half a dozen pupils were attending, the rest had been withdrawn to places of safety in view of an impending war.

In January of 1871, Johnson visited the Yoruba mission for the first time as he wished to see his mother again before her demise that appeared to be drawing near. Moreover, although the journey was motivated by filial piety, it turned out to be a tonic for him in his translation work, for he quickly recognized, for the first time, the power of apprehending religious truth in one’s mother tongue. Happily, his visit to Abeokuta coincided with Mr. Townsend’s short visit to the town, the first time after the 1867 destruction of the churches and expulsion of the missionaries from there by the Egba authorities. On the Sunday he joined the congregation to worship at the Ake church, he observed:
That day more than 560 Christians in the midst of a professedly heathen people, going through, in their regular order, the different parts of our church service,– with this important difference, that no word of English was heard from the beginning to the end. I was much struck by that circumstance; and as I understood the Yoruba language, I enjoyed the service still more rationally.
The occasion provoked in this colony-born agent visiting his roots for the first time a reflection on the possible reason for the shortfall of Christianity in his Sierra Leone environment, especially the endemic apathy of his compatriots in the colony to Christian life:
I was more than ever impressed that day with the great importance of my own special work. I saw and understood practically the lasting benefit of giving to a people the word of God in their own native tongue. The Abeokuta Christian who is able to read, understands at once the meaning of what he reads: Whereas this is not the case with many even in the Colony of Sierra Leone. The English language not being theirs by natural inheritance, the most ordinary words are very commonly misapprehended.
Johnson buttressed his position with a conversation he had with one of those persons who left Sierra Leone to return to Lagos:
A Yoruba man at Lagos-an intelligent person-informed me that he was much struck in reading the Bible in his own language for the first time, by the new light which it gave him, although he had been in the habit of reading the English version many years at Sierra Leone. I do believe that it is because the Bible has been translated into the Yoruba tongue, and the people taught to read & comprehend its meaning, that the fatal tendency of the last outbreak [of 1867 at Abeokuta] was so effectively counteracted.
Johnson derived much encouragement from observing that the young churches in the Yoruba country were thriving in the hand of the native agents without the supervision of the missionaries who had been outlawed from the country. In his reckoning, the factor that made it possible was the translation of the Bible into Yoruba.
A feeling of encouragement glows within me in contemplation of this cheering fact, and I picture to myself the day when, in the providence of God, converts from the Mende tribes will be able to join in the beautiful services of our beloved church in their own expressive vernacular. I am convinced that until they can of themselves read the word of God, our success amongst them will continue precarious & unsatisfactory.
Johnson returned to his post at Sherbro, persuaded of the value of the mother-tongue translation for rooting Christianity among indigenous people. By August 1871, he had completed the translation of the Acts of the Apostles. His new possession, the Yoruba Bible, became an additional tool for his work as he wrote, “I found the Yoruba very useful indeed. The force and meaning of the original in many passages are beautifully apprehended.” [20] Six months after completing the book of Acts, he completed Romans. On this he elaborated:
The task was a laborious one. Not only individual words, but likewise phrases, and even whole sentences were sometimes found very difficult for a literal translation. As a rule I followed the text of the original Greek; though I did not neglect to avail myself at the same time of such helps as other versions could afford. The Yoruba text was a great advantage: …I consulted it freely. I found very frequently that where the points of difficulty concerned idioms, there the Mende & Yoruba usually coincided.
At the completion of the book of Acts, Johnson requested a supply of type fonts to print his translations in African languages. He thought it would afford him the facility to print at the Grammar School press in Freetown portions of the translations he was doing. He now saw the need to test run his translations by circulating them among those whose “help I solicit from time to time” before forwarding them to England. It is not certain if this request was granted, but by October of 1872, Henry Johnson’s translations of Paul’s letters to the Corinthians, the Galatians, the Ephesians, the Philippians and the Colossians had reached London.

Mission to Muslims had always been a concern of the CMS parent committee. Their presence in the colony’s outlying and impenetrable territories, where they still carried on the slave trade, was a continuous reminder to the Sierra Leone mission that their work was not yet done. At the conference of the clergy and laity held in Freetown in October of 1871, the subject came into focus in a paper presented, “Our Mohammedan and Heathen Population-The Duty of the Church in Relation to Them.” By this time also, Henry Johnson had taken interest in learning the Arabic language and was planning “to make the experiment of writing a portion of scripture in Temneh with Arabic characters.” It is evident that he had taken interest also in Christian witness to these people whose language, although, had not been reduced into writing but could understand Arabic well. He said, “I have come across several persons here who read the Koran very intelligently…” At this point, it seems the parent committee was already considering sending him for training in Arabic studies.

By September of 1872, Johnson had gained a measure of mastery in his understanding of the Mende language and could write that, “I translate now with much greater ease and satisfaction, and I am able to make an intelligent discrimination in the use of words of nearly cognate meaning.” Nevertheless, he wondered at this time if it would not be necessary for the society in London to halt the printing of these translations “till we have tried the success of the gospels already printed.” At this time also, Johnson was very much occupied with the concern for the society to be intentional in promoting the education of Mende children because he “was sanguine of an immediate and effective conquest over the young Mendes.” By this he meant that:
Education, when properly directed, supplies a most wholesome corrective: and upon it we rely, under God’s blessing, to raise the moral tone and feeling of the Mende children & their parents. I can testify to their wonderful mental receptivity. I do not know what they are not able to take in by way of instruction-they are thoroughly [teachable].
In 1873, Johnson was invited to visit London early in the spring. By this time the translation of the New Testament into the Mende language had been completed. Evidently, the parent committee appreciated his work and wanted him to acquire more skills in the study of languages. Others would now have to make real his vision for the Mende mission.

New Opportunities

In December of 1873, Johnson left England for Jaffa in Palestine where he studied Arabic. After nearly two and half years he returned to England in April of 1876. What followed appeared to be a promotion, as the committee transferred him to Lagos in November of 1876. The transfer was to mark the beginning of his vocational problem with English missionaries in the CMS missions in what eventually became Nigeria. And although everything appeared to be in his favor at this time, the sign of imminent trouble had preceded him to Lagos.

Three factors laid the foundation of what would become a problem for this gifted agent. First was Henry Venn’s doctrine of the indigenous church, which the missionaries saw as a threat to their control over their African counterparts. Although the honorary secretary had left the scene in 1872, the wisdom of freeing the mission to explore regions beyond, where the native church had emerged, was still current with the CMS committee in London. But the European missionaries on the ground still loathed the idea of an indigenous church that would eliminate their control. The elevation of Bishop Crowther and the frustration they suffered in the Egba nationalist uprising of 1867, the Ifọle, were still causes for concern among them.

Second, nationalist fervor was already brewing in Sierra Leone among the general populace, and mission there was already transmuting into a settled church less in need of the active control of missionaries. This was not a cheering development for the missionaries who feared that the more propitious Yoruba mission might soon follow in the same direction. In fact, this appears to be the reason why Johnson was being transferred to Lagos.

The third and most critical factor that laid the foundation for Henry Johnson’s clumsy relationship with the missionaries came from his visit to the Yoruba mission in 1871. In a report on that visit to the parent committee in London, he wrote that:
It came to my knowledge, a little before I left Lagos, that a petition was drawn up, signed by some of the residents, and forwarded to the committee praying them to send me down to the Yoruba mission. I do not know whether I am competent to give an opinion on the subject; but if I am, I should unhesitatingly say that I hope the committee will not grant the prayer of the petition. As an expression of the interest & confidence of the signatories in me, I am glad of the petition: beyond that, I have no other feeling. I prefer to continue the work which I have already commenced here, and personally I have not the fainted shadow of a desire to change my sphere of labor now, if at all.
Johnson did not only hear about this development; he also knew about its rattling effect on the European missionaries in the mission as he wrote:
I regret that it caused a general dissatisfaction among the missionaries at Lagos, who imagined they saw in it the germ of another outbreak; & the final expulsion of white men from the colony. I no more sympathize with such an extreme notion, than I do with the wishes of those who have petitioned for me. However, I have full confidence in the wisdom of the reply which the committee will give on the subject.
A cursory reading of this report does not show Johnson as being strongly opposed to the idea of his being transferred to Lagos; it even appears he would be inclined towards it with only a little nudge from his mentors in England. But, in reality, the case was contrary. Johnson saw Hastings, Sierra Leone, as his native home, and the committee in London succeeded in inducing his move to Lagos only with “the repeated assurances…that [his] stay in Lagos is not intended to last beyond the time when a suitable successor could be found to undertake the work.” His ultimate destination was the Niger mission, where his newly acquired training in Arabic would find usefulness. But his assignment in Lagos was to help move the Breadfruit Church into a new status as a native pastorate, the church, at this time, being the second most important congregation of the mission in Lagos.

Apart from the popular demand for him in Lagos in the aftermath of his 1871 trip to the Yoruba mission, there is no other clue to understanding the rationale for Johnson’s appointment to Lagos. Truly, he was operating in Sierra Leone where mission had transmuted into a native church, but he was not strategically involved in the process that led to it. He even mentioned an Egba pastor in Sierra Leone, Rev. G. J. Macaulay of Wellington, as eminently fit for the task. In spite of this, the parent committee seemed to brush aside the muffled feelings of their European agents in their most promising field in West Africa, just as they had in elevating Bishop Crowther.

When the insecurity of missionaries in the Yoruba mission combined with Henry Johnson’s mandate and profile- exposure, privileged education, and giftedness-the stage was set for a troubled ministry. His independent spirit and lack of diplomacy made him an unfit candidate for the assignment, given the social environment. The home committee of the CMS was leading him into the same dilemma they had inadvertently led Bishop Crowther, and he would eventually share the same fate with him.

Henry Johnson arrived in Lagos in January of 1877. He took over the Breadfruit Church parish under Rev. James Johnson who had just been appointed as the secretary of the Yoruba mission and was to be stationed at Abeokuta. Less than a month after his arrival, the church suffered in the fire incident that destroyed the Olowogbowo and Ebute Ero districts of Lagos Island. Although the properties of the church were saved from the incident, the temporary church building, covered with thatch, burned to the ground. Thus the speedy completion of the one under construction became necessary.

The sign that Johnson was under the adversarial watch of the European missionaries occurred in the first year of his arrival in Lagos. The parent committee asked Bishop Crowther to invite him to visit the Niger Mission, which was under his episcopacy. He undertook the three-month journey from August to November of 1877 with the knowledge of the finance committee in Lagos, having committed the responsibility in his care to those he appointed. In January of 1878, in the aftermath of this trip, Bishop Cheetham of Sierra Leone sent him a query, indicating that he “had seen it in print, and heard it from different sources; and [had] recently been informed, on making the inquiry of the secretary of the C.M.S. at Lagos, that you either are or have been absent from the work for which you are licensed by me in this diocese, for a considerable period.” The bishop asked Johnson to explain if he “had ceased to hold the office to which he [was] licensed: and have therefore ceased to be a licensed minister in my diocese?”

In response, he explained the circumstances of his absence from the diocese to the Niger and affirmed his belonging to the bishop’s diocese while asking for his pardon for the unintended overstay away from his assignment without permission. The incident passed on with no recriminations, but it was the first flicker in the unfolding drama. His association with the unwanted bishop on the Niger had yoked him to his fate. The reason for reporting Johnson to the bishop is not difficult to discern. Unbeknownst to him when he was told to visit the Niger mission, the parent committee and Bishop Crowther had agreed to elevate him to the office of archdeacon of Upper Niger. He was surprised when, after their return from the up river visit, they retired to St. Stephen Church, Bonny, and there Bishop Crowther formally appointed him and Mr. Dandeson Crowther as his archdeacons.This did not go down well with his European missionary detractors in Lagos who were troubled by his presence in the Yoruba mission.

Following the successful visit to Bishop Crowther, the parent committee transferred Johnson to the mission there in January of 1878. However, almost immediately, the parent committee put on hold his transfer there. With the sudden death of Mr. Thomas B. Macaulay in January of 1878, the founding principal of the Lagos Grammar School, he assumed the office of the principal of the school in addition to his assignment at the Breadfruit Church. The plan to relieve him of his assignments in Lagos could still not be realized as the bishop in Sierra Leone was no longer willing to release any of the ministers there for service in other missions, including Lagos. At the end of 1878, the parent committee saw the need for him to continue his two assignments in Lagos until the following year.

When a substantive successor had been found for him at the Grammar School and an acting one for the church, a formal send off ceremony was organized in his honor at the Breadfruit church in October of 1879. Nevertheless, another notice from the parent committee delayed his movement to the Niger for the second time. At first, the reason for the delay this time was not clear, but it revolved around the movements of Mr. J. B. Wood between London, Lagos, and the Niger. Mr Wood, at this time, was the most influential missionary in the Yoruba mission, and he seems to have been very resentful of Johnson. Johnson’s profile and independent spirit, typical of Sierra Leone returnees, did not help the matter, and the plot against him thickened by the day. Not even Bishop Crowther with whom he would be working on the Niger was as influential as Wood in enabling Johnson to take up his new post.

At this time also, Johnson had started expressing his views on the happenings on the Niger, especially the arbitrariness and highhandedness of Captain Mackintosh, the officer in charge of the British gunboat on the river. Johnson was critical of this officer whom he described as “a man of a very violent temper” whose activities on the river he saw as a threat to a successful mission there. In underscoring the captain’s conduct with his recent destruction of Onitsha, Johnson warned that, “This is by no means the first time that he has been the cause of the death of many innocent people; and unless the late massacre at Onitsha be carefully looked into & proper notice taken of it, I fear that great troubles await us in the future.” In retrospect, Johnson’s observation here, though sincere and unassailable, is another evidence that he would have problems with the racially charged relations that would soon be unfolding on the Niger. Still, his opinion could only have further alienated him from the English missionaries in Lagos who were in league with other European agents and traders on the Niger who were already spying on the African agents there.

Johnson returned to his duty at the Breadfruit Church without any definite indication from London on how soon he would assume his new posting. His stay in Breadfruit eventually lasted until about April 1881; that is more than three years after he had been appointed to the Niger. However, it afforded him the opportunity to complete the new church building against all odds.

“The State of Denmark”

The dynamic behind the delay in Johnson taking up his new duties on the Niger was uncovered at the CMS missionary conference that was held in Madeira in March 1881. Bishop Crowther and his archdeacon-son Dandeson Crowther were invited to take part in the conference. Henry Johnson, who was to be Dandeson Crowther’s colleague up the Niger River, was left out. This immediately raises the question of why he was left out. Some of the English missionaries in Lagos, led by Mr. J. B. Wood, were giving the secretaries in London evil reports about Johnson, which they kept from him. He was also not asked to respond to them, formally or informally, since they were not substantiated allegations but prejudices and insinuations. But they were effective enough to frustrate his transfer to his new post.

The attempt of the lay secretary, Mr. Edward Hutchinson, to draw the bishop and his son into this scheme brought the matter into the open at the conference. Obviously, the selective invitation of Dandeson Crowther to the conference was part of the plotters’ scheme to create a wedge between the two archdeacons on the Niger, to isolate them, and eventually to reverse Johnson’s posting to the Upper Niger. It backfired as the full details of the insinuations against Johnson reached him in Lagos after the conference.

Broadly speaking, there were four insinuations the missionaries were peddling and reporting to London about him. First, he was being described as a “mere slippers man who is only fond of sitting in a drawing room or where he might be seen and talked of, and sending others to work.” Second, his detractors alleged that he was “not a good evangelical but one that has some ‘leanings.'” By this, they mean that he was a high churchman or Anglo-catholic, which to the CMS mindset was seen as an English representation of popery and empty ritualism. Third, the archdeacon was accused of joining Rev. James Johnson “in opposing Bishop Crowther at the [1880 Conference on Domestic Slavery in the Yoruba Mission], and the committee were ‘disappointed in [him]’ in consequence.” Johnson’s opponents needed this argument to isolate him from the bishop. Finally, they charged him with “anti-white” sentiment like Rev. James Johnson, [43] and this cut at the very heart of his relationship with his European mentors who were opening doors of opportunity for him. All these were only being circulated in muffled conversations within the European missionary circle in Lagos and with the lay secretary in London. As Shakespeare would say, “Something is rotten in the state of Denmark.”

Johnson’s written answers to these charges may represent one of the most astute self-defense arguments of an indigenous agent in the service of the CMS mission. His official response to the charges breathes such eloquence and capacity that this, in and of itself, reveals why he could not but be seen as a threat by his European colleagues. The mission had created in him a sophisticated agent with no match among the less educated and insecure English missionaries in the fledgling colony of Lagos. And the allegations they rumored against him were not arbitrary; they were directed at the very strengths he brought to the Yoruba mission from Sierra Leone. His evident capability and prodigious capacity for work were really threatening, and the way to attack it is to accuse him to his superiors in London as a loafer and lazy bone. To defend himself against this charge, he drew from his track record both in Sierra Leone and in Lagos, the details of which he had always made known to London in his copious correspondence.

The second allegation, Johnson called “baseless slander,” which might have arisen from his achievements at the Breadfruit Church. Johnson succeeded in amplifying exponentially the financial capacity of the church, helped the congregation make a smooth transition into a native pastorate, and ensured the completion of the new church building. Johnson completed the building against all odds, including the refusal of the mission to assist with securing the funds promised by the colonial government. The celebration of this feat became the main source of the accusation of “leanings” against him, as he noted that, “the charge was founded solely on the fact of my having had a choral service on the occasion of the formal opening of the new Breadfruit Ch.” He had no difficulty in identifying Mr. Wood as the source of this slander, as he had sent him an invitation three times to participate at the occasion. Wood ignored the invitation for no tangible reason, except probably that the signal success the occasion represented was too much for him to bear.

Johnson’s defense of the third accusation is very interesting. Before he stated the fact of the case, he declared, “…[L]et me deliberately assure you, Sir, that if the history of that conference should repeat itself again, I shall do precisely what I did last year, and abide the consequences of my conduct. I was and am and will ever be on the side of truth and justice. I am no party man.” In stating the fact of the case, he admitted that he only supported a motion to allow representatives of Lagos churches to be admitted to make their presentation to the conference. According to him, he considered that the proposed presentation would encourage the Egba churchmen, who were proving difficult at the conference, to follow the footsteps of their Lagos counterparts and to cooperate with the decision of the parent committee on the slavery issue. Although the conference rejected the proposal and no one protested against this rejection, Johnson’s detractors saw in it an opportunity to halt his move to work with the bishop.

Johnson qualified the fourth accusation as “the gravest charge,” and, indeed, this gravity can be felt in the slow pace at which his defense first proceeded. He wrote: “Those who have slandered me in this way knew very well that nothing could tend to arouse so effectually the dormant prejudices of color as this…They knew full well that it is a charge that is difficult to rebut. I can admire their shrewdness, but must question their morality. I utterly repudiate the epithet as applied to me.” After rhetorically drawing the attention of Mr. Hutchinson to the list of his European friends in England, with whom the lay secretary was familiar, Johnson pronounced the charge “a gross libel; and those who stigmatized me as ‘anti white’ were perfectly conscious that they were uttering a falsehood against me, to effect their own sinister ends.”

Having rebuffed the charges, Johnson took the battle to the mission’s lay secretary, referring to incidents of unethical behavior among the missionaries in Lagos, occasionally using satire and ridicule to advance his arguments. He laid before Hutchinson some of the malicious gossip, unsavory personal experiences, and patronizing tendencies of European missionaries in Lagos towards himself. This is summarized in his submission:
You in England cannot fancy how some of those who come out here, inflated with the idea that they are of the “dominant race,” do treat with something like contempt, the natives of the country. The truth is that they regard us this day in pretty much the same light as our fathers and forefathers were, who were rescued from the iron fangs of slavery by the philanthropists of a former generation. We are not over-sensitive, but at the same time we are not unduly pachydermatous…”
Johnson underscored this argument by citing the indiscreet statement Bishop Cheetham made in putting down the native clergy in Sierra Leone and made it clear to Hutchinson that “it is yourselves and your representatives, and not we, that are perpetually appealing to the race feeling.” He then related his own encounters with the dark intrigues and discourses among the English missionaries to move the Crowthers against him so that he would not be allowed to join them on the Niger, while they were also casting aspersion on his competence and masculinity, as he was not yet married at age forty.

Johnson saw the mission secretary already playing to the scheme of his detractors in his posting with the intention that he might end up a failure in an isolated mission at the confluence of the Niger. His submission here is revealing of the morale of the man who was about to go up the Niger as the archdeacon:
My very location, as I could perceive from the minutes of the Madeira conference, clearly proves that the opinion that I am a “slippers man” and the rest of it, is not yet given up, for it is arranged that I should go and have charge of Lokoja… While…two men who have been nearly 16 years in the country are to labor together [at Kipo Hill], I who know nothing of the languages spoken there, nor the habits of the people– a perfect stranger in the country, am thrown at Lokoja…to vegetate on the results of my idleness. I consider that I have been degraded by being confined to the pastorate of such a little place like Lokoja when I feel myself capable of much more. I feel that it is not believed that I shall be of any use as an archdeacon. Truth to tell, the title has proved more trouble to me than the proverbial “white elephant.”
Ultimately, the challenge Johnson placed before Mr. Hutchinson is his indiscretion to have received charges against him without hearing him out before acting on them. But he did not end it there. He called the bluff of the lay secretary:
From time to time I am tossed here and tossed there, and now again it is rumored that there is a desire to send me back to Sierra Leone to something else. When the proposal is actually made, it will be time enough for me to consider my relations with those who have no respect for, or confidence in me. If in any manner I stand in the way of any new plans that you may wish to carry out in the Niger, you are simply to send me about my business. Send me away as a useless lumber and all will be right: my enemies will rejoice, and peace will reign. But if I am still to be retained in service, I should like it to be distinctly understood that I shall never compromise myself as to my mental independence, nor will I consent to trim my sails so as to catch the breeze that will blow me into favor and promotion.
He concluded: “I had all along thought that I had your and the committee’s confidence–yours especially; but now I find that without having done anything to forfeit it…you are disappointed in me. All I can say is that my own confidence has been grievously shaken, and that I too am greatly disappointed.”

Johnson’s letter created a stir in London and Hutchinson was blamed for the way he handled the matter. The parent committee took the defense seriously and the outcome was the resignation of Mr. Hutchinson. But Johnson proceeded to Lokoja, soon after writing the letter, and there he labored for another ten years under European race feelings against African agents of the Niger mission. Yet, those years did not pass away without his giving them significance as a pioneer mission agent. He began the translation of the New Testament and Prayer Book into Nupe. He also prepared primers and catechism in Nupe and Ebira languages.

The second half of the 1880s particularly turned out to prove Johnson’s earlier experience with European missionaries in Lagos as a prelude to more difficult years ahead. Two dynamics were at play here. First, the colonization of Africa was formally entrenched by European powers at the Berlin conference of 1884-1885. The conference effectually divided the continent among the powers that, hitherto, were arbitrarily jostling for territories. In the aftermath of Berlin, Europeans became more brazen in their domination of the lands and peoples of Africa, with no regard for the feelings of the people. Generally, but especially in the CMS mission in what is Nigeria today, the old European missionaries had no problem reconciling themselves with the new development, because they saw in colonization the opportunity to bring order into the continent where inter-ethnic and intra-ethnic wars were decimating the peoples. The century long conflict in the Yoruba country is a good example of this. With the insecurity of the CMS English missionaries after the 1867 housebreaking saga at Abeokuta, one can understand their attitude towards indigenous agents and the relief they anticipated in the full colonization of the countries around the Niger. But this is only to the extent that colonialism would not dictate the pace of their enterprise.

The second dynamic that eventually frustrated Johnson and his colleagues on the Niger came from the new agents in the CMS mission in the late 1880s. These products of British universities were part of the new mission awakening among university students in Europe and North America. Some of them joined the CMS Niger mission, where problems had been brewing between African agents, on the one hand, and CMS missionaries and European traders, who were agents of colonialism, on the other. The missionaries earnestly wished to demonstrate to the home committee the impossibility of effective African mission agency without European supervision. The entry of these zealous, idealistic, but untested recruits into the mission complicated the crisis in the Niger mission. Having regard neither for the old ethos of Christianity, commerce and civilization nor for the African agents who were laboring there, including the venerable Bishop Crowther, they acted arbitrarily and with condescension. J. F. Ade Ajayi wrote about their conduct at Johnson’s post:
When these missionaries arrived at Lokoja in 1889 and saw the building of the Preparandi Institution, a two-storey house which was completed in 1887, built by the European catechist John Burness to Archdeacon Henry Johnson’s specifications, they declared it to be the grandest building in West Africa and an obstacle to the progress of Christianity: “Its very existence is a blot on the C.M.S. …It tends to divert the attention of the natives; they speculate on its cost and the wealth of the white man.”
These freshmen did not stop there; Ajayi continued:
They said that Henry Johnson must have deceived the parent committee about its real size, charged him with, among other things, being extravagant and asked for him to be removed to Sierra Leone. They sold the building at once to the Royal Niger Company at the company’s price, without waiting for the decision of the parent committee on the wisdom of the step.
Evidently, these young recruits, although they had their own idiosyncrasies, were acting out the script of the 1881 controversial reports of Mr. Wood who, with his English colleagues, had then conducted an inquisition into the activities of the Niger mission agents and wanted the waiting archdeacon sent back to Sierra Leone without assuming his post in the mission. Johnson’s connection with the CMS mission closed in 1891, and he relocated to Lagos with his family, having married there in 1888. During his brief stay in Lagos, he ran a private school without success as the value of education was still not appreciated by the residents of the colony.

When in 1894 the principal of the grammar school, Rev. Isaac Oluwole, was appointed bishop and the Lagos mission needed a capable hand to take over the management of the school, one of the missionaries, Mr. Toase, suggested Johnson’s name to the parent committee in London. Although he had the best credentials to take over the management of the school, the committee firmly declined the proposal. They “were not prepared to consider the re-employment in connection with the work of Archdeacon Henry Johnson.” If Johnson had been staying around Lagos with the idea that the committee in London would rethink the unjust treatment of the African agents in the Niger mission, such thoughts were definitively banished from his mind at that time. Had the London committee too bought into the spirit of the age?

Henry Johnson returned to Sierra Leone where he joined the native pastorate. He labored there until his untimely death in 1901. In his letter of condolence to his widow, the Governor of Sierra Leone acknowledged that: “In the short acquaintance I have had with the archdeacon I have formed the highest opinion of him and regarded him with the utmost esteem and respect, and his removal from amongst us is a loss and a sorrow to the whole community.”

Conclusion: “The time has not yet come”

The life and times of Archdeacon Henry Johnson, as those of his siblings, aptly demonstrated the recurring ambivalence that characterized European contact with Africa, beginning from the nineteenth century until the end of colonialism in the twentieth century. If this attitude may be excused due to the secular nature of colonialism, it is difficult to justify its self-defeating effect on mission. Still, when one looks at the matrix from which people like Johnson and Bishop Crowther evolved in Sierra Leone, the fact that a mission would go to such lengths in one generation to create these powerful agents, and then turn around, in the next, and ruthlessly unmake them is absolutely baffling.

Johnson emerged from a mission environment where the results were meager in spite of the huge investments English Christian philanthropists put into the cause for African transformation. The school system was not turning out indigenous agents as desired, and it was only the careful observation and exertion of Ulrich Graf in Hastings that partially saved the day so that people like Johnson could emerge. Yet, Johnson was not a run-of-the-mill agent; he was a rare breed. In an age where European influence created identity conflicts for his Creole compatriots, Johnson had no misgivings about his African roots. Where they looked down on the heritage of their forebears, he explored this heritage by probing into their languages and cultures in order to engage them with the gospel through Bible translation. This uniqueness of vision and purpose, along with his self-motivation and earnestness, commended him to those who saw his strategic value for rooting Christianity among the peoples of West Africa. It is an irony of history that a mission which desperately sought such products would later transmute into one that loathed their emergence.

In exploring the biography of “Powerful Johnson,” nothing demonstrates more vividly this change of ethos than his correspondence with his superiors in London. From 1866, when he came on board as a mission agent, his letters breathed confidence and appreciation for the investment of the mission in the spiritual, cultural, and economic transformation of West Africa. But in 1881 he had to rethink his experience. The change is evident as he challenged the lay secretary that: “Having educated us, you will not allow us to think and speak and act like men. You will not trust us. …[T]he time has not yet come for us to be believed.” In these few sentences, Johnson summed up the spirit of the new age. How soothing it must have been then, for him, when in 1885 the University of Cambridge deemed his efforts in Bible translation worthy of a honorary Master of Art degree and awarded it to him accordingly. In the spirit of the age, it could only have intensified the loathing of his detractors.

Johnson’s sufferings at the hand of English missionaries must be placed in perspective. This is necessary because his main antagonist, J. B. Wood, was very friendly and supportive of his siblings who were also serving with the CMS mission, Nathaniel Johnson in Lagos and Samuel Johnson in Ibadan and, later, Oyo.

Jonathan Buckley Wood arrived in the Yoruba mission in 1860, shortly before the spirited resistance of European missionaries against Bishop Crowther’s elevation. He joined in opposing Crowther’s appointment. Being a young agent at the time, he remained long on the scene to sustain the prejudice against the African bishop well after the main antagonist, Henry Townsend, had left the scene. In 1880 the parent committee mandated him to investigate the Niger mission, based on the covert report he and the European managers of the mission’s steamer on the Niger, “Henry Venn,” passed to London. He executed it like an inquisition and left behind more controversies than solutions to his perceived failure of Bishop Crowther’s mission. Evidently, in recommending European supervision of the mission, he remained committed to undoing the elevation of the venerable old bishop twenty years after the matter appears to have been settled. Henry Johnson was caught up in this scheme and his personality and ever-rising profile did not help the matter. Sending an agent of his profile to a mission European agents wanted to take over by all means made him a target. In fact, Johnson referred to rumors circulating among the European missionaries in Lagos that he was looking forward to succeeding Bishop Crowther.

Johnson represented a double liability because he came from Sierra Leone, where nationalist fervor was a cause for concern among European missionaries in the Yoruba mission. They had seen the effect at Abeokuta as a result of the activities of the returnees there in the 1860s. One of them, the man who led the destruction of the churches and the expulsion of the missionaries from there in 1867, Mr. G. W. Johnson, was still very much around. Henry Johnson observed in 1871 that the bellicose returnee was at the celebration in honor of Mr. Townsend at the Ake church when the missionary visited Abeokuta for the first time after the expulsion. [65] Even the fact that these two dissimilar personalities shared the same name was bad for the painful memory of European missionaries in the country. The archdeacon was, therefore, a victim of the times in which he lived, but the inherent ambivalence that made and unmade him continues to characterize the relationship between Africa and the West. The continent and its people must not be allowed to sink, but they must also not be allowed to excel and escape the control of the West. Will the time ever come “for [them] to be believed?”

Amy Carmichael

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A brief history of Amy Carmichael
Posted on 12/5/2016 by Etozataziba I.M. Omieworio.

The faith commitments of three young women born between 1840 and 1867, each in December, eventually led to the transformation of thousands of lives in China, Africa, and India.
Amy Carmichael (Born DECEMBER 16, 1867)
An entire generation became indebted to Amy’s efforts to rescue their bodies and souls.
Amy first shared her faith among factory workers in Ireland. She held Bible studies for the female workers known as “shawlies.” It was so successful, a building had be built to accommodate them.
She arrived in India in 1895. Members of India’s lowest cast became Amy’s first converts. From 1901 on, she rescued girls from lives of temple prostitution. That number eventually surpassed 1,000 young individuals.
Amy’s prolific writing led to the publication of 40 books. Her accounts of the mission field, often taken from her journal, didn’t sugar-coat the work. Along with miraculous victories, Amy painted the harsh realities of daily missionary service. Her frankness opened the eyes of many who were too often spared the details.
Her death in 1951 marked the conclusion of 56 years of making a difference in India.

Bishop Ajayi Samuel Crowther

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AJAYI History
Born in 1809,
Priest, Bishop Ajayi Samuel Crowther
About 1809 born to Ajayi in oshogun, in the iseyin area of oyo state, Nigeria. In 1822 Crowther, as a young boy, had been rescued from a Portuguese slave by an English man-of-war intercepted the Ship by the British Navy and the transportation ship was taken to Sierra leone. Together with the other slaves on board including his brother and other family members, along with his entire village, by Muslim Fulani slave raiders he was taken to Freetown where in 1821 and sold to Portuguese slave traders. However, before his slave-ship left port, it was boarded by a British Royal Navy ship under the command of Captain Henry Leeke, and Crowther was taken to Freetown, Sierra Leone, where he was released. Ajayi’s mother was a descendant of King Abiodun, to take up the story in his own words, “I was under the care of the C.M.S. and in about six months after my arrival at Sierra Leone i was able to read the New Testament with some degree of freedom; and was made a Monitor, for which I was rewarded by 7 1/2 d per month.” He was an outstanding pupil and when he enrolled as one of the first students at the African Institution established in 1827 Mr. Haensal, the Principal, wrote, “He is a lad of uncommon ability, steady conduct, a thirst for knowledge and indefatigable industry.” After the 1841 expedition, Schon who was greatly impressed by his conduct in that dangerous undertaking, recommended that Crowther should go to England for ordination. The Rev. F. Bultiman who knew him intimately at this time wrote: “I am convinced that he would do honour to our society, if presented by them as a candidate for Holy Orders to the Bishop of London… .though I am sure his modesty will not allow him to ask for it.” As his later career proved, Samuel Crowther more than justified the confidence placed in him by contemporaries. He was ordained in 1843. was a linguist and the first African Anglican bishop in Nigeria. Crowther was a Yoruba man who also identified with Sierra Leone’s ascendant Creole ethnic group.
Crowther steps
The baptised Ajayi crowther join the receptive, then sent to school on 11 December, 1825 in 1826 he was sent to England, to attend the parish school, Liverpool, London. He was appointed a schoolmaster in 1827 Returning to Sierra leone with a salary of $1 per month by the Governor of the directory. Crowther late taught at the college, after his enrollment as one of the students of the C.M.S. owned Fourah Bay college, Freetown. . The Obi was presented by the missionaries at Aboh, with two Bible one English the other in Arabic. the Obi could not read; but missionaries were accompanied by a freed Igbo Slave from Sierra leone, Simon Jonas, their interpreter. The Sermon was read out by Simon on the mountain (Mathew, chapter 5)to the Obi. The Obi was impressed, and insisted that Simon should be left at Aboh to preach the gospel. the missionaries could only presented an Arabic Bible to the Atta of Igala at Idah another (Arabic) Bible was also sent at Rabba the Etsu of Nupe. Crowther under go training for the priesthood in England C.M.S. college at Islington. In 1843, he become deacon desman year after a priest. At Abeokuta with Townsend, he opened a mission. The Niger Expedition, in 1854 his object being to explore the prospects of establishing on the Niger. In 1856, he followed the Liverpool merchant, Macgregor laird, to the Niger, founding mission at Onitsha. When the missionaries arrived, the people of Onitsha were at war with their neighbors (Ogidi people) and as a consequence of this war “a great many good houses were deserted at the east end of the town, where a constant look-out was kept for the approach of the enemies…” According to Crowther’s report, twenty Onitsha men were killed as against three of the enemy. In this state of affairs, Crowther stated, Onitsha people welcomed European traders and missionaries in order to strengthen their own position.
Crowther was selected to accompany the missionary James Frederick Schön on the Niger expedition of 1841. Together with Schön, he was expected to learn Hausa for use on the expedition. The goal of the expedition was to spread commerce, teach agricultural techniques, spread Christianity, and help end the slave trade. Following the expedition, Crowther was recalled to England, where he was trained as a minister and ordained by the bishop of London. This after Schön had written to the Church Missionary Society noting Crowther’s usefulness and ability on the expedition, recommending them to prepare him for ordination. He returned to Africa in 1843 and with Henry Townsend, opened a mission in Abeokuta, in today’s Ogun State, Nigeria. Crowther hard many difficulties pre his dead. Crowther hard different challenges such as human trafficking, primitive society poor communication and lack of transportation also with his diffrent European colleaques. he was opposed during his nomination by Townsent and other Europeans missionary of the C.M.S. that Lagos and Yoruba were not under his operation. inspite of the hostile make him to resign his bishopric and the C.M.S. appionted an European successor that need to the provocation of the C.M.S. people in the Niger Delta.
Crowther began translating the Bible into the Yoruba language and compiling a Yoruba dictionary. In 1843, a grammar book which he started working on during the Niger expedition was published; and a Yoruba version of the Anglican Book of Common Prayer followed later. Crowther also compiled A vocabulary of the Yoruba language,[10]including a large number of local proverbs, published in London in 1852. He also began codifying other languages. Following the British Niger Expeditions of 1854 and 1857, Crowther produced a primer for the Igbo language in 1857, another for the Nupe language in 1860, and a full grammar and vocabulary of Nupe in 186
Bishop Crowther was on the island of Madeira in the Atlantic Ocean west of Morocco for a conference. He was accompanied by his son, Dandeson, an archdeacon, on church business in March 1881.[citation needed]
Crowther’s attention was directed more and more to languages other than Yoruba, but he continued to supervise the translation of the Yoruba Bible (Bibeli Mimọ), which was completed in the mid-1880s, a few years before his death. June 26 1864, crowther was 58, and he was consecrated Canterbury as the first bishop of the new Diocese on the Niger, by Charles Longley, Archbishop of Canterbury at Canterbury Cathedral he held the post until his death on December, 31 1891. note that crowther get married to his wonderful wife Suan Thompson, Earlier in 1830 also a Yoruba liberated slave. His son, Dandeson took charge of the mission in 1871, at Bonny. Outside the missionary movement crowther also develop in human race, he also contributed in some of Nigeria Languages. Further more succeeded in compiling a Yoruba Grammar, a dictionary and Grammar of the Nupe languages, a Yoruba-English dictionary. He also translated many Books of the Bible into Yoruba. Doctorate honorary degree of Divinity was his profession at the oxford university. in the history of Africa crowther’s achievement entitle him to a pre-eminent. Crowther been Bishopric at the time when the black man, abuse Africans slave, as a ‘savage’ was significant. He further explain that the black man intellectually and spiritually.
Crowther most painful time.
One of the most painful events of his life was the death of Mrs. Crowther on October 19, 1880. The couple had suffered slavery together and shared the joy of freedom. They had just celebrated the golden jubilee of their wedding when she became ill, at a time the bishop was away on one of the long journeys to the Upper Niger. He returned only to find his devoted wife seriously ill. She later died in his arms.[33]

The bishop soon suffered another blow in the death of his mother. She died in October 1883 at the age of ninety-seven years. He was traveling up the Niger when she passed away. On her death bed, she warned her granddaughter, Mrs. Macaulay not to write to bother the bishop. This was in keeping with what she had earlier told her son, “You are no longer my son, but the servant of God whose work you must attend unto without any anxiety for me.”[34]

Finally, the death of Rev. Schon in 1889 was a personal blow to Bishop Crowther. It was Schon who had recommended that he pursue missionary work and was instrumental to his accepting consecration.

Other problems that perplexed the mind of the bishop towards the end of his life include the trafficking in liquor and the inordinate love for trade that caused unhealthy rivalry between the native African traders and Europeans. At this time Europeans were making claims and securing territorial possessions in Africa. The Niger and Benue were coveted waterways. Between 1877 and 1891, Nigeria became three separate British protectorates – Lagos, Oil Rivers and Territories of the Royal Niger Company. Inevitably, the change seriously affected the church and allowed Europeans to lord it over Africans. Different denominations began to grow. Missionaries who had been stationed on the coast moved into the interior. The Rev. James Johnson, a former lecturer at Fourah Bay College and who had been appointed to Abeokuta as a probable bishop, was recalled when this rivalry became tense. The clouds started to gather.
Death, Burial.
Crowther died of a stroke, in Lagos, on 31 December 1891 and was buried at Ajele Cemetery in Lagos. In 1971 the Lagos State Government under Brigadier Mobolaji Johnson desired to use the site of Ajele Cemetery for new government offices and issued notices to families of the deceased. The Anglican Bishop of Lagos, Rt Rev Seth Kale, representing the Anglican community and Crowther’s family delayed exhumation and reburial until 1976 when an elaborate ceremony was held at a new burial site along with a cenotaph at Cathedral Church of Christ, Lagos. Though the bishop died at a very ripe age, some memories of what happened in his later life cannot but linger with us. The storms and trials that cropped up in his ministry towards the end did not make him waiver or forsake his ideal. He consistently and persistently upheld the value of native agency. They must have given him painful experiences. Robinson and Brook who caused the bishop so much embarrassment were members of the student volunteer movement. They had been saturated with the idea of evangelizing the world during their generation. They showed ability and devotion and out of emotion, they were prepared to die as martyrs. They condemned the rank and file of African Christians from Sierra Leone to Nigeria.